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    Urinary System Organs and Their Functions

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    Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder, urethra
    Member Organs of Urinary System
    Filter blood and make urine; Involved in the homeostatic control of fluid volume and composition and acid/base balance by its small number of renal cells (endocrine) which make renin/ erythropoietin hormones
    Function of Kidneys
    Carries urine from kidney (renal) pelvis to the urinary bladder where they enter (on the back of bladder at the base)
    Function of Ureters (2)
    paired, oval-shaped, retroperitoneal location (behind peritoneum against muscle), left one higher than the right
    Structure of Kidneys
    renal arter enters
    renal vein exits
    ureters exits
    Hilus of the Kidney structure
    filter blood, form urine (H2O, nitric wastes and excess blood substances), critical in homeostatic regulation of fluid water balance, hormone levels, electrolyte levels, and Ph (acid/base balance)
    Function of the Urinary System
    Paired, smooth muscle in wall which contracts to move urine down the tubes, muscle walls work by peristalsis action, contains some transitional epithelium tissue lining which allows it to change shape.
    Ureter Structure
    temporarily stores and releases urine; emptying controlled by reflexive actions of urethral sphincters and gravity
    function of urinary bladder
    trigone shaped arrangement with 3 openings, 2 ureters and the urethra; lining contains transitional epithelium which changes shape and allows the bladder to distend.
    structure of bladder
    single tube which carries urine from the bladder to the urinary orifice
    function of the urethra
    at the bladder/urethra junction is the internal sphincter, external sphincter, length is 3-4 cm in fmales; orifice above vaginal opening 20cm in males; goes through penis which also carries semen.
    structure of the urethra
    contracts…closed to prevent leaking, relaxes to void
    involuntary smooth muscle; controlled by ans reflex; external and internal sphincters must relax for bladder to empty into urethra.
    Internal sphincter
    voluntary skeletal muscle; controlled by somatic motor reflex; external and internal sphincters must relax for bladder to empty into urethra.
    external urethral sphincter
    indentation for entrance of the renal artery and exit of the renal vein and ureter.
    Renal Hilus
    connective tissue sac covering kidney
    Renal capsule
    outer area of kidney that contains glomerulii, bowman’s capsules, and proximal and distal convoluted portions of nephrons
    cortex
    (Capillary beds) filters blood and begins process of filtrate formation
    glomerulii
    mostly in cortex, beginning of nephron tubule which collects filtrate; surrounds each glomerulus, collects filtrate, beginning of nephron tubule, modifications of its epithelial cells form the podocytes
    bowman’s capsules
    arranged in alternating columns and pyramids
    medulla
    contains cortex extentions
    columns
    contain loop of henle’s and collecting ducts, papillae terminate into the minor calyx
    pyramids
    contains both the major/minor calyces and the renal sinus which gives rise to the ureter.
    renal pelvis
    receive urine draining through renal papillae at bottom of pyramid.
    minor calyces
    urine flows from minor calyces into major calyces and then into the renal sinus -> Ureters -> (Exits kidney at hills) -> bladder
    Urine flow in renal pelvis of kidney
    the functional unit of the kidney; millions in each kidney
    nephron
    mostly in cortex, capillary ‘tuft’ or bed, forms from afferent arteriole, filters blood, epithelial wall is covered with specialized filtration slits of podocytes
    glomerulus (renal corpuscle)
    initial winding portion of tubule, transports filtrate and modifies it via tubular reabsorption and secretion, surrounded by peritubular capillaries, mostly in cortex
    proximal convolutions
    mostly in medullary pyramids for juxtamedullary nephrons, half of the loop is in cortex for cortical nephrons
    loops of henle
    descending limb, ascending limb, surrounded by peritubular capillary networking cortical nephrons, surrounded by vasarecta in juxtamedullary nephrons
    structure of loops of henle
    transports and modifies filtrate via tubular reabsorption and secretion esp. CCMM
    function of loop of henle
    mostly in cortex, final winding portion of tubule, transports and modifies filtrate via tubular reabsorption and secretion, surrounded by peritubular capillary network
    distal convolutions
    mostly in medullary pyramid, several tubules empty into one duct, terminates into minor calyx in renal pervis via renal papillae, concentrates (by tubular reabsorption) and collects urine (first time the waste product is called urine)
    collecting ducts

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