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    Tomb Wall of Amenemhat & His Wife Hotept Essay

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    Tomb Wall of Amenemhat & A ; His Wife Hotept

    Egyptian Art Dr. Sara Orel


    Ancient Egypt is known for their belief that life did non merely stop at decease but it continued. They expressed it in legion ways, but largely in the funerary art of grave walls. They believed that decease was merely a period of life and that life continued after it. Beautiful objects and images associated with this belief were partially planned to continue material goods, wealth and position for the transition between this life and the following. [ 1 ] The most outstanding word pictures of funerary art are on the walls of important graves and offering Chamberss. The walls and Chamberss would be decorated with alleviations in rock or, as seen in later periods, painted on the walls with bright vibrant colourss. Some word pictures are of sacred scenes, representations of the asleep and, at certain periods, images of day-to-day life.

    Tomb walls would besides integrate pyramid texts, which are a aggregation of spiritual texts from the clip of the Old Kingdom. They consist of enchantments that are chiefly concerned with protecting the deceased’s remains and assisting him, or her, on his journey into the hereafter. The chamber ornament normally is placed around a false door. Through this door the psyche of the deceased could go through on and accept offerings left by the life. [ 2 ] A premier illustration of a grave wall with this kind of imagination is from the Middle Kingdom in Beni Hasan belonging to Amenemhat and his married woman Hotept.

    Amenemhat, besides called Ameni, was a high functionary in the tribunal of King Senusret II in the twelfth dynasty. His official rank is “Governor of the Oryx Nome, the XVIth Nome of Upper Egypt, and a high functionary in the tribunal of King Usertsen I” . [ 3 ] He bears the king’s seal and claims the confidential friendly relationship of his crowned head. [ 4 ] The scenes given to us as a group are of the west wall in the chief chamber. The grave has many cosmetic scenes throughout and text on the wall. At the top of the grave wall are the rubrics of the deceased ( on the left ) and the short signifier ( on the right ) of one of import characteristic of the grave wall ; the offering expression.

    The most common type of text on Middle Kingdom stelae and grave walls is a sequence known as the offering expression. The expression merges two related maps: the functionary and personal. The official portion of the expression shows the position of the deceased as one of the blessed dead and links to the successful public presentation of official maps in royal service and ethical behaviour. [ 5 ] This was of import to hold so that the deceased could hold entree to the agencies of memorialization of goods and offerings. The personal portion was a more household based facet. It allowed for private offerings to the dead and could be physical or verbal.




    The expression is comprised of four basic parts. [ 6 ] The first portion is the king’s expression,htp ( R ) disk jockey ( tungsten ) nswt, which translates to ‘an offering given by the king’ . This portion will ever be foremost in the offering expression. The male monarch is person who is seen as an arbiter between the people of Egypt and the Gods. The offering is made through the male monarch for this ground. The one interesting facet of the king’s expression is that during the Middle Kingdom it invariably changes. However, it is possible to separate between the expression of the eleventh and 12th dynasties. The king’s expression in this grave can be seen on the false door above the images of Amenemhat and his married woman Hotept. The image looks like so:

    The king’s expression would be followed by the 2nd portion, the Gods expression. This portion is merely as it sounds ; it is the name of the God. The most commonly name God in the offering expression is Osiris. However, Anubis is besides named in Amenemhat’s grave. Each side of the false door has an offering to the two Gods. On the right is to Anubis. After careful research and interpretation in the best possible manner, the hieroglyphics approximately translate to“an offering which the male monarch gives to the God Anubis, upon his hill ( or mountain ) , within Ut. Lord of the sacred land…”On the left manus side is the same offering but to Osiris, it approximately translates to“an offering which the male monarch gives to the God Osiris, Lord of Abydos…”After the Gods expression is the voice offering.

    The voice offering is the portion of the offering expression where the list of offerings is made to the Gods. These offerings can include beer, staff of life, poultry, fish, etc. They are frequently numbered as ‘a thousand fowl’ or ‘a thousand fish’ . They tend to be listed in short signifier instead than long signifier, nevertheless, in the 12Thursdayand 13Thursdaydynasties they are normally more to the full written out. Equally good as naming a standard set of offerings, the expression besides normally includes a generic and across-the-board phrase such as:hello niobium ( T ) nfr ( T ) weber ( T )translated to ‘everything good and pure’ . [ 7 ] This can be seen towards the terminal of the offering expression after the last portion, the recipient’s name.

    The asleep receiver of the offering is introduced by one or both of the undermentioned phrases:n k3 N( for the Ka of ) orim3h ( tungsten )( the revered one ) . In earlier dynasties the use of these two phrases was separate. However, at the extremum of the mid-12Thursdaydynasty both phrases were used. [ 8 ] This is seen in the grave of Amenemhat and his married woman dating this grave to about mid-12th. However, the offering expression is non the lone thing depicted on the grave wall.

    Other scenes depicted are of “river and garden, fishing and fowling, the vinery and vino pressure, and other out-of-door occupations” . [ 9 ] There are besides scenes from domestic life such as the readying of nutrient materials and drinks and the lady of the house among attenders and instrumentalists. All of these representations are symbolic to a hope for a continued supply of earthly amenitiess for the dead. [ 10 ]

    Egyptian graves were a alone manner for the life to fix for the hereafter. They provided a beginning of wealth and nutriment that was needed in order to go on life after decease. Egyptians viewed decease as merely a stage of life and that everything, if done right, would go on. The scenes and offering expression depicted on the walls of Amenemhat and his wife’s grave provide them with the necessary points and basics needed to populate a long comfy life in after decease.


    Borghouts, J.F.Egyptologische Uitgaven.Leyden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten, 2010.

    Collier, Mark and Bill Manley.How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs: A Step-by-Step Guide toTeach Yourself.Berkley: University of California Press, 1998.

    Franke, Detlef. “ The Middle Kingdom Offering Formulas: A Challenge. ”The Journal ofEgyptian Archaeology( 2003 ) : 39-57. Accessed 30 September 2014. Uniform resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //

    Garstang, John.The Burial Customs of Ancient Egypt.London: Archibald, Constable, & A ; Co. , LTD, 1907.

    Newberry, Percy E.Archaeological Survey of Egypt: Beni Hasa Part 1.Edited by F.L. Griffith. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & A ; Co. , LTD. , 1893. Accessed 1 October 2014. Uniform resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //

    Robins, Gay.The Art of Ancient Egypt.Harvard University Press, 2000.

    Rock, K.Image and Spirit: Finding Meaning in Visual Art.Minneapolis: Augsburg Books, 2003.

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