This survey is to analyse the modern traditional common Malay house. How is the origin Malay house being transform into modern common houses and what is the consequence of modern-day stuffs. The kampong Baru is located in the capital metropolis of Malaysia, Kuala lumpur. This is a reserved country for the Malay cultural groups. From the instance survey will establish out the climatic consequence of utilizing modern-day stuffs in the traditional Malay house by the undermentioned inquiries:
1: How is the clime of Malaysia?
2: How did the climatic factors of Malaysia influence the design of the traditional common Malay house?
3: How did the traditional common Malay house being modernisation?
4: What are the climatic effects on the modern common Malay house?
In this paper, is to analyze and analyse the influences of Malaysia climatic factors on the design of the traditional common Malay houses. Basically it is portion of the research on the climatic effects on the modern-day building stuffs in the traditional common Malay houses in Malaysia. The survey is more focussed on the adaptation of the local clime on the traditional common Malay houses and how the edifice was transformed into modern common Malay houses through the modernisation procedure besides the effects of utilizing modern building stuffs in the modern common Malay houses.
During the early twentieth century, modernisation and colonisation periods the British had brought multiracial immigrants into Malaya. Then, Malaysia defines as a multiracial state that included Malays, Chinese, Indian and others. During the colonisation period, multiracial group is remaining individually. The bulk remaining in countryside largely is Malays group and the Chinese and Indian were remaining in the metropolis. The Malay racial group depends to a great extent on the environment. Villages can be established even a individual traditional Malay house and the extra houses came subsequently. Normally, the edifices that built closely together were normally household members. The most important features of traditional common Malay house are the adaptation natural climatic factors in Malaysia.
The traditional common Malay house defines as a richest constituent of Malaysia cultural heritage. The edifices built with local stuffs and local techniques. Largely, the resident will participated in the procedure of design and concept, it is to attest the aesthetic accomplishments of the Malays.
The site planning of the edifice based mostly on Islamic beliefs and its environment. The layout was split into two parts, forepart and back paces. Obviously, front portion will be the welcoming guest country and it is decorated with different types of cosmetic workss and flowers. Back pace is the country linked to kitchen and washroom and it is placed near H2O, as the kitchen needs intense H2O use. The matrimonial position besides reflected the architectural manner of the edifice because of the Islamic beliefs.
The house signifier had developed and modified over a long period to fulfill most of the cultural, residents demands and fortunes alterations. The traditional Malay houses are bamboo or lumber houses raised on piles ( lumber ) . The edifice largely is a station and header construction with lumber or bamboo walls and a thatched gabled form roof. There are ever big gaps on the sides of the edifice to supplying good airing. From a distance the traditional Malay house seems to incorporate of course with the environment. The big gabled form roofs, dominates the low walls and with different orientations and sizes created an interesting ocular signifier. Overall the Malay house is designed to provide the local climatic factors by assorted airing and local stuffs that are low thermic capacity stuffs. Besides the well adaptation to the environment, the design of the traditional Malay houses are flexible is to provide the demands of user and it evolved a edifice system called prefabricated. The edifice has developed a sophisticated add-on system that allows the edifice can be easy extended with the demands of the residents.
There were assorted traditional Malay house signifiers can be found in Peninsular Malaysia. Normally, they classified based on the forms of roof. The basic signifiers of Malay house are called the bumbung panjang, bumbung Lima, bumbung Lima and bumbung perak. The most common design of the Malay house signifier was bumbung panjang that with a simple long gable roof, supported by the chief stations. The bumbung panjang is the simplest one of the four roof forms and it is an oldest identified in Malaysia. The bumbung panjang signifier became most popularity used on the Malay house among the poorer users and those built the edifices by themselves. Due to the bumbung panjang house signifier, it is simpleness and go a really efficient roof form for the edifice. Largely the stuff used for the bumbung panjang is attap. Attap is a thatch covered and tied together with nipah and others palm trees that can easy found in the local country. The simple funnel form of bumbung panjang roof is a really efficient in airing belongingss. The roof can chill the house efficaciously is because of utilizing the airing wickets at the terminals of the gable called tebarlayar and the airing articulations to supply better airing.
Besides the bumbung panjang, the bumbung Lima, bumbung Lima, and bumbung perak are all non origin tradition roof forms, it has modified and developed through foreign influence. Furthermore, the bumbung lima Malay house ever with a hipped roof, the bumbung perak Malay house signifier ever with a gambrel roof and the bumbung Lima house ever with a pyramidic roof. Hence, they are two type of houses believed that were influenced by Dutch and British architecture during the colonisation. Last the bumbung perak house signifier besides known as the bumbung potongan Belanda which is a type of Dutch roof and it is a celebrated roof in East Coast.
Originally, infinites in traditional Malay houses can be separated into front portion and back part. Therefore, the nucleus house ( rumah ibu ) or chief country must be at the forepart and the kitchen ( Dapur & A ; Rumah Tengah ) country will be on the back parts of the house. The selang is a closed paseo covered by foliages and used to be a linking device for the forepart and back parts. The selang is supplying good airing and natural sunshine come ining the house. Besides the location of the side entryway to the kitchen, it is besides a infinite for womenfolk to socialise and chew the fat. Most of the traditional Malay houses entrance there will be a covered porch called the anjung that acts as a passage topographic point between the private and public infinites. The anjung will merely used to entertain the unfamiliar visitants and it is a favourite infinite for the users to chew the fat and rest. This floor was about 0.5 to 1 metre lower than the rumah ibu floor degree. Beside the anjung was a hanging gallery ( serambi gantung ) where most of the invitees will be entertained here and it is a one measure down from the chief house around 15 centimetres. The gaps in the serambi gantung provide good positions to outside and leting natural airing come ining the topographic point where normally occurred day-to-day activities. At the serambi gantung country can easy detect the embroideries like carving and grill of gaps, bannisters and wall panels. Following to serambi gantung was the rumah ibu, which is the nucleus country and it is the largest country and can specify as multi purpose country for most activities were conducted here. The rumah ibu floor degree was the highest and cleanliness country white the kitchen ( dapur ) was the lowest degree and untidy country of the house.
The chief features of traditional Malay slang houses are it is good designed to provide the Malaysia clime. From the Malay houses we can detect it is designed with a really good apprehension for nature. In the traditional Malay societies, the villagers were straight obtain most of the resources from the natural environment for theirs edifice stuffs, nutrient and medical specialties. To understand better on the influences of local climatic factors on the Malay houses, must foremost understand the local clime, thermic demands comfort and the conditions of the environment that the edifice will construct. Malaysia is located in cardinal South-East Asia and has a tropical conditions. Due to the latitude and longitude, it gives Malaysia a warm humid equatorial that influenced by monsoonal clime. The monsoon clime here comes twice a twelvemonth, the first monsoon season comes during the summer season and the other comes during winter season. The differences between the two monsoon season are summer season conveying tonss of rainfalls and winter monsoon does non convey rain and is by and large dry. The one-year rainfall was averaging 80 inches to 100 inches. Furthermore, the clime here gives hot summer and high humidness throughout the twelvemonth. The temperature here holds around 24 Celsius to 34 Celsius, which gives warm yearss and fairy cool darks. The one-year humidness degree was averaging approximately 75 % or above. The high humidness clime causes the really high H2O vapor in the air. It can filtrate the solar radiation but it besides speeded up the decomposition, and the growing of algae. The local air current merely comes in from nor’-east and southwest these two waies. Normally air currents are in low variable velocity, high variable velocity air current will merely happen when rain.
Hence, the local climatic factors here were high temperatures, humidness and solar radiation. Based on the local climatic factors the edifice built here should able to accomplish the thermic comfort. Therefore, rain, inundations and strong air currents must be control to accomplish thermic comfort in Malaysia Malay houses. For thermic comfort, heat will bring forth from the human activities and metabolic procedure. The metabolic procedure will equilibrate and keep the organic structure temperature ( 37celcius ) . The heat will let go of during the metamorphosis procedure of transition of good into energy. The heat loss through convection, conductivity and radiation can be negligible is due to the local temperature are about same as the organic structure temperature. Similarly, the sweat is reduced and the organic structure temperature is diminishing because of the high humidness. The concentrated air envelope blocks the vaporization from the human organic structure and it is easy form particularly in humid clime. In the edifice airing is of import because air fluxing can take the concentrated air envelope in order to speed up vaporization. Similarity, a edifice without any airing, it will increase the temperature and humidness to an uncomfortable conditions.
The chief beginnings of organic structure heat deriving are the local climatic factors conductivity from the edifice cloth. Direct solar radiation is the chief beginnings of organic structure heat gaining, therefore the proper design of commanding the direct solar radiation come ining the edifice is the most of import to accomplish thermic comfort. Besides that, the type of stuffs used is one of the major beginnings because the high thermic capacity stuffs will absorbed heat and emitted to the insides edifices. Therefore, heat addition from solar radiation must be minimized and maximized the airing in order to accomplish the human thermic comfort in the house.
Obviously, the traditional Malay slang house is good local climatic control edifice and it besides influences by the local climatic factors. A local design of Malay house must hold the undermentioned factors must raised up on piles ( lumber ) , big opening on side, usage low thermic capacity edifice stuffs ( wood, lumber, Calamus rotang, bamboo ) , commanding the direct Sun radiation, a long thatched steep gable roof by attap, site planning and site layout. From the design of traditional Malay slang house, it is a really appropriate design to provide the tropical clime of Malaysia and it is more suited to the Malaysia clime compared to the modern brick house. The raised up floor in traditional Malay house is maximising the airing in the house every bit good as forestalling the monsoonal rain inundations. The raised floor is barely seen in most modern house and the quality of openness in the edifice is shown by the nothingnesss in its window, airing grills, the clears raised up underside and the unfastened insides. There are assorted characteristics supplying effectual airing in Malay house. The intent of elevated the floor on piles is to catch high speed of air currents and the insides with minimal dividers is to maximise the cross airing occur in the edifice. Normally, full-length gap and to the full adjustable Windowss or louvres will environ the traditional Malay house. The carven panels on the top of the Windowss and wooden wickets besides an of import airing device. Behind the airing, the hungering on wooden panels controlled the blaze come ining the house and it besides stand foring the Islamic books. There are two effectual airing devices on a simple gable roof. They are the sail-like gable-end ( tebar layar ) of the roof and the airing articulations called patah both are really effectual airing to direct air to air out the roof infinite. The houses in small town are indiscriminately arranged and seting the tree sagely around the house to let natural flow through the edifice and integrated harmoniously with nature. The Malay house largely built far apart for future extension to carry through the demands of resident. In the traditional Malay house, there are more nothingnesss than mass and it is a lightweight building utilizing natural stuffs to provide the local clime. The natural stuffs define as low thermic capacity stuffs and it is a really good in insulating. The long thatched roof with big overhands in traditional Malay house has reduced the solar radiation and it besides designed to cut down direct sunshine. The low walls and big overhangs in Malay house, it make the shading easier and reduced the solar radiation besides the blaze from he unfastened skies. Besides supplying good shading, the big overhangs besides gives protection against driving rain. The walls and overhangs have allowed the Windowss to be unfastened in different state of affairs conditions. In add-on, the external environment of Malay house largely covered and shaded with trees or flora. This provides a ice chest environment and lessened the reflective of blaze for the house to put in. Traditionally, most of the Malay houses are oriented to confront East-West for spiritual grounds and reduces direct exposure to heat from direct solar radiation.
Nowadays, most of the traditional common Malay houses are being transforming into modern Malay house throughout the modernisation period. The Malay houses were modernized due to the emphasis from urban renovation and sociality alterations. The new Malay houses has different spatial layout besides the used of building stuffs and technique. Based on the instance surveies, the Malay houses in the kampong bharu were transformed the roof, wall, pillar and window. The external environment has besides alterations is barely to see high and tall trees merely short trees are planted at that place due to the limited infinite of the compound. The short and little trees besides blocked most of the natural air flow base on ballss through the house. Besides the alterations of external environment, the inside of Malay houses was transformed into more walls to split the suites and infinites. The cross airing and natural air motion were reduced due to the mass partitioning walls inside the house.
As I mentioned above, the roof is the most important characteristic because the Malay house were categorized based on their roof types. The Malay house in the campong largely used bumbung panjang compared than the other 3 types of roof. This is because the type of roof is easier to build and cheaper. From the site I have found some houses really utilizing different roof for theirs chief and secondary roofs. The most celebrated combination types of roof in campong are bumbung perak with bumbung panjang and bumbung panjang with bumbung panjang. The long gable steep roof has become gentler for the sloping grades and sing the tebar layar on the gable terminals of the roof were modified the design or closed with wall panels. Traditionally, attap or wooden herpes zosters were the chief stuffs of the roof but by and large now modern building stuffs were frequently used than the traditional stuffs. Besides the transmutation of roof, the walls and the gaps besides modified due to present of new architecture during the colonisation period. The traditional wall is made by bamboo and the traditional agreements of drywall were wholly modified. The shuttered Windowss on the wall are one of the important characteristics to demo the feature of Malay house. The faade of the Malay house can be separated into 3 parts, the carved wooden panels supplying better airing largely at the top portion above the window, while the window or adjustable louvres ever built at the center and underside parts. There are some Malay house walls still utilizing the timber board but in the modern building brick walls are replaced the traditional bamboo or timber board wall is due to the care and long lasting jobs. There are 3 chief types of Windowss such as the short window ( tingkap ) , the tall window ( jendela ) and the punched window. The aesthetic wooden bannisters behind the Windowss are being used for safety intents. In beginning of window form, the jendela and tiangkap window have a cardinal characteristic to sort the Windowss form called Jenang pintu. Although, the Windowss in Malay house has the traditional elements but the proportion of the window has modified to slimmer and became closer of the spread between the Windowss. The western punched glass window was adopted modern glass louvres to maximising the airing while keeping the safety of the house.
The traditional piles are no longer in usage since pillars are a really of import structural to back up burden from the house. In general, the brick and reinforced concrete pillar were frequently used, with the increasing of concrete pillar highs infinites of underneath became more efficient. In the modern common Malay house merely used concrete pillars and the underneath is normally walled to carry through the demands of user. The transmutation of wooden pillars to concrete pillars is due to the concrete pillars is more suited for back uping the tonss.
After brought in the modern building stuffs like Zn, cement, brick, glazing and aluminium louvres window into traditional Malay house has modified the traditional house signifiers and side effects of the high thermic capacity stuffs. The high thermic capacity stuffs are non suited in local clime illustration like the Zn and asbestos roofs in Malay houses are generated more noise during the rains autumn and gives a really hot insides during the twenty-four hours. Besides the climatic effects the used of modern stuffs besides causes the diminishing of traditional aesthetic accomplishments and techniques of making the complicated thatched attap roof. Other than used of Zn and asbestos stuffs, the bricks, cement and concrete are better stuffs use for making walls particularly the wet country parts and stronger constructions for the house. Some of the Malay house has a closed underneath to make the house to double-storey house. Such alteration has transformed the visible radiation and aired Malay house into solid looking edifice. The full-length wooden window has been replace by the adjustable glass louvres window with aluminium frames. The louvres window has modified the traditional Windowss into smaller and closed the bottom portion of the window. It causes the less efficiency of airing. The Fe saloon in louvre window is for safety intent but it wholly destroyed the quality of openness in traditional Malay house.
Throughout the surveies, the traditional common Malay house was design to provide the local clime and it is one of the richest constituents of Malaysia cultural heritage. Besides the adaptation of local climatic factors the houses besides reflected the Islamic belief. The houses were developed and modified until it satisfies the user. Based on the research they are assorted house signifier in Malaysia, they merely can be classified based on the roof types. Overall the traditional Malay house was adapted to the local clime and it is design such as random spacial layout, raised up floor, full-length Windowss and high-insulated roof. The shadowing braid and flora around the house besides helps to chill down the temperature in the house. The orientation of house confronting to east and west was influences by the faiths ground and it helps reduced the direct Sun visible radiation radiation.
In the modern common Malay house was transformed and modified to carry through the demands of resident but it still maintained the traditional roof forms. The used of modern stuffs was straight changed the house signifier and brought climatic effects into the house. Second, introduce of modern stuffs the lightweight building Malay house has transformed into more solid looking edifice and it besides causes the diminishing of traditional accomplishments. Overall, the sustainably in modern common Malay house was transformed and besides the traditional house signifiers were changed.