The initial stage of the Sodor undertaking involved the formation of the undertaking squad and the nomination of the undertaking director. Group 12 is made up of 4 Nigerians and 1 Vietnamese which reflects a multicultural squad with each nationality possessing curious personality traits. The aim of the first meeting was to put up a Undertaking Manager and to specify and hold on land regulations for undertaking squad meetings. To guarantee equal engagement of all squad members, it was agreed that the rotational undertaking director system will be adopted whereby each person in the group would function as the undertaking director for 1 hebdomad each throughout the 5 hebdomad continuance of the Sodor undertaking. It was agreed that meetings will be scheduled 3 times a hebdomad by the undertaking director enduring no more than 2 hours each. At each meeting, specific undertakings is assigned to each squad member to be submitted at the following meeting twenty-four hours.
CONTRACTOR SELECTION CRITERIA
The contractor choice standards adopted by the squad is the Trade-off technique. This technique uses a marking system to quantify specific properties of the assorted contractors and provides a numerical end product, the highest of which represents the best contractor pick. The usage of this technique provided the best possible contractors to pull off the assorted phases of this undertaking.
Construction AND CLOSE OUT
The stopping point out procedure involved a reappraisal of the concluding Sodor terminus undertaking program to corroborate range, cost and agenda deadlines have been met. The lesson learned papers was so prepared which showed the assorted struggles that occurred throughout the undertaking and how they where managed by the squad in order to supply lessons for the hereafter. The concluding undertaking program was so presented to the undertaking patron and the Group 12 squad was deformed by the undertaking director. We were able to get at a concluding undertaking cost of & A ; lb ; 7,356,123 and at a clip of completion of 90.93 hebdomads. This can be chiefly attributed to the fact that we used the TRADE OFF technique for contractor choice. The trade off technique provided an nonsubjective manner of choosing contractors utilizing a set of rank tonss.
Projected Time of completion ( PTC )
Actual clip of completion ( ATC )
Net income ( 3 % of Actual cost )
16000* ( PTC-ATC )
Entire Net income ( Profit +Bonus )
Teamwork has been found to be an indispensable ingredient responsible for the success or failure of undertakings. The effectual usage and direction of squads for undertakings has been noted to be a cardinal determiner for how successful a undertaking will be ; nevertheless, the effectivity of a squad depends on the ability of the squad members to interact suitably with one another to bring forth a common end product.
Hoegl ( 2004 ) defined squads as a societal interaction between two or more people within an organisation who portion a common undertaking. Teams have besides been described as a group of people who hold themselves reciprocally accountable to each other and who work together to accomplish a common intent ( Scholtes et al,2003 ) . The above definitions take into history the fact that for a squad to be, certain basic ingredients need to be in topographic point which include ; common answerability, stability of intent, and a shared duty for success or failure. The benefits of teamwork in undertaking direction can non be overemphasized. Teams aid in the mobilisation of diverse resources to a undertaking as compared to that achieved by a individual person. Church ( 1998 ) besides noted that squads provide the flexibleness to utilize the mobilized resources therefore assisting to go on with the undertaking in the event of a peculiar person being indisposed. Possibly the greatest value of squads in pull offing undertakings rests with the ability of squads to supply a synergism of the attempts of the single squad members whereby the consequences achieved is greater than the arithmetic amount of the parts of the single members to the squad.
Factors THAT AFFECTED TEAM EFFECTIVENESS OF SODOR OIL TERMINAL PROJECT
Planning AND Design
The demand to hold a program for the direction of the Sodor oil terminus can non be overemphasized. Grachev et Al ( 2006 ) utilizing 3M corporation as a instance survey proposed that a cardinal benefit of be aftering upfront for a undertaking is the creative activity of good defined undertaking ends. The ends help to give way to a squad undertaking. Other benefits of be aftering include ; it helps the squad members in the coordination of single undertakings by supplying clearly stated assignments. Furthermore, the undertaking program besides enables the squad to hold an overview of the undertaking agenda, costs and restraints which the squad can so utilize as a baseline to mensurate existent undertaking advancement.
The planning and design of the Sodor oil terminus started with the designation of the Cost, Schedule and Scope ends from the informations derived from the Undertaking Sponsor. These ends where so integrated into a consecutive construction by the usage of the MS Project® to bring forth the Sodor oil terminus preliminary Gantt chart. The concluding Sodor oil terminus program is a comprehensive papers demoing the existent budget, clip of completion, range of the undertaking, and the sanctioned contractors selected for the undertaking. Christina ( 2009 ) proposed that cardinal factors that affect squad success at the planning and design stage include ;
A. Chiseled Goals: The definition of clear undertaking deliverables has been shown to better the success rate of undertaking squads. Pinto and Slevin ( 1988 ) proposed that clearly defined and structured ends is a important factor that determines the effectivity of squads and hence the success rate of undertakings. Zander ( 1980 ) postulated that squads with clear and mensurable ends perform better than squads with fuzzed ends. This is as a consequence of the usage of clear ends by squads as a baseline through which squad consequences can be measured. Furthermore, the usage of clear and concise ends besides helps the squad in be aftering for what they can accomplish within a peculiar timeframe. The ends of the Group 12 squad where clearly stated and good defined at the oncoming of the undertaking which was to present a undertaking program within 98 hebdomads at no more than the declared undertaking budget provided by the undertaking patron.
B. Management Support: Pinto and Slevin ( 1988 ) suggested that the support upper direction gives a squad helps in easing squad success. This occurs by easing the release of resources to the undertaking squad therefore guaranting their efficiency and assisting to take administrative bottle cervixs. Group 12 received the support of the undertaking patron in the designing of the sodor program particularly with regard to weekly reappraisal meetings to measure the current position of the undertaking program and proffer ways to convey the program back on path.
C. Cross-cultural squads: The importance of holding multiple persons from different civilizations in a squad has been proposed to impact positively on squad consequences ( Earley and Mosakowski,2000 ) . Ochieng and Price ( 2009 ) besides suggested that the effectual usage of proper communicating techniques to manage cultural differences in a squad helps in advancing undertaking success. Multiple civilizations in a squad brings together people with different accomplishments, competences, and personal properties dedicated to a common intent. The multicultural environment of Group 12 provided a pool of diverse thoughts derived via brainstorming from which the best possible solution was agreed on and translated into the Sodor undertaking program.
D. Team experience and continuity: Pinto and Slevin ( 1988 ) suggested that the inclusion of persons with specific undertaking experience into a squad helps in advancing its success. This is because this persons already have a cognition of the critical factors needed to guarantee the success of the peculiar undertaking from the lessons learned from past undertakings managed by them. Scott-Young ( 2009 ) suggested that the stableness of a squad throughout the undertaking lifecycle helps in guaranting squad success. Stable squads have been shown to keep the consistence of thoughts coevals and are non susceptible to the distraction that tends to happen from a squad member connection or go forthing the squad ( Akgun and Lynn,2000 ) . The usage of squad members with a broad scope of experience pull offing undertakings like health care, instruction, and technology played a cardinal function in the consequences of Group 12. This is due to the diverse nature of the cognition pool available for be aftering the undertaking. The stableness of the Group 12 squad throughout the undertaking lifecycle besides played a cardinal function in the design of the sodor undertaking program.
E. Clear determination doing procedures: The procedure of doing determinations and the ability to do the best determination is cardinal to the success or failure of a undertaking squad. The presence of uncertainness in undertakings and the effects of doing the incorrect determinations are cardinal incentives for following a determination devising procedure at the planning phase of the undertaking. In line with the techniques proposed by Brahm and kleiner ( 1996 ) , two schemes where adopted and utilized by Group 12. The schemes include the Brainstorming technique and the Brainwriting technique. The procedure involved the wild coevals of thoughts and the authorship of those thoughts on a piece of paper from which the group so agrees on the best thought possible. This technique was applied in the procedure of taking the undertaking director and besides in the contractor choice procedure ; It contributed to the overall success of the planning phase of this undertaking.
Construction AND CLOSEOUT
A. Managing Conflicts: The absence of struggles in a squad has been proposed to be a arrow to the failure of the squad ( Saj-Nicole and Damon,2009 ) . The presence of struggles and how the struggles are managed indicates how successful the undertaking squad will be. Several struggles arose during the direction of Group 12 ; an illustration will be the, Who to take as the undertaking director? The manner it was managed was to hold a face to confront meeting with the undertaking squad, everybody puting their single thoughts on the tabular array, so geting at a determination reciprocally good to everyone which is to hold a rotational undertaking director system with each member of the undertaking squad ‘having a gustatory sensation of the pie ‘ of being the undertaking director for 1 hebdomad each. This solution helped during the building stage of the program because all the squad members felt a sense of belonging and doing a positive part to the squad.
B. Leadership Continuity: The proposal by Akgun and Lynn ( 2000 ) on the positive benefits of leading continuity to the undertaking squad success is mostly non applicable to the Group 12 undertaking squad. This is because the usage of a individual leader throughout the undertaking lifecycle will hold led to the presence of tyrannizing inclinations being shown by the person chosen which may impact certain determinations made during the preparation of the building program. It may besides hold led to project squad members being made to experience they are non a portion of the squad. Hence in a command to avoid this scenario, the rotational undertaking director system was proposed and adopted.
C. Resource handiness: The handiness of resources plays a major function in the ability of a squad to bring forth consequences. Peters and O’Connors ( 1980 ) postulated that the handiness of specific resources can either advance or interfere with a squad effectivity. The resources needed by a squad to be effectual varies depending on the undertaking range. It may include fiscal, Human, and Environmental resources.
D. Reward and Recognition: The relationship between appropriate wages constructions and squad effectivity can non be overemphasized ( Bullock and Lawler,1984 ) . Developing a wages system that focuses on the full squad instead than persons help in bettering squad motive and hence its effectivity. It is a fact that people are motivated to accomplish consequences if they feel that the consequences provide value to the organisation and this value is acknowledged by the organisation.
E. Lessons-learned certification: The readying of the lessons learned papers is an indispensable portion of the undertaking squad closing stage ( PMI,2008 ) . The lessons learned papers captures the lessons learned at assorted mileposts in the planning of the undertaking. The concluding meeting of the Group 12 squad was a brainstorming and brainwriting session to place assorted challenges we had during the creative activity of the Sodor undertaking program and how the challenges where managed.
This paper inside informations how the Group 12 squad managed the Sodor undertaking from design to the closeout stage. It explains in item the assorted factors responsible for the success of the squad in geting at the concluding undertaking program ; and besides the assorted challenges Group 12 squad had and how those challenges where managed to bring forth positive consequences. The paper sheds visible radiation on the cardinal factors that affected assorted phases of the undertaking and how they where harnessed and utilized positively by the Group 12 squad.