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    The Renaissance Theater and Shakespeare

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    plays
    even before the Renaissance, the English had been writing and performing ____ for several centuries
    its creation by God, its fall through the wiles of Satan, its life in Old Testament times, its redemption by Christ, and its final judgement at the end of the world
    In the marketplaces of towns in the 1300s and 1400s, various workers’ guilds cooperated in staging cycles of plays that dramatized the whole history of the human race as then understood:
    York, Chester, Coventry, and Wakefield
    Parts of four cycles of these plays have been preserved and they are named after the towns where they probably originated:
    deus ex machina
    an artificial device arbitrarily used to resolve a plot
    Everyman
    most notable play of the period just before the Renaissance is _____, based on a Dutch orignal
    miracle and mystery
    plays written before the Renaissance that taught people stories from the Bible and saints’ legends
    moralities
    plays written before the Renaissance that taught people how to live and die
    interlude
    one act plays, some of them indistinguishable from moralities, others rowdy and farcical, that started in the early 1500s; with these the playwrights stopped being anonymous
    dramatic traditions
    even before the new humanist learning came in, there were strong ________ that the great Renaissance playwrights new about
    James Burbage
    In 1576, ________, the father of Shakespeare’s partner and fellow actor Richard Burbage, built the first public theater and called it, The Theater
    Curtain
    Shortly after the construction of the Theater, a second theater, called the _____ was erected
    northern suburb of London
    The Theater and the Curtain were in a _________, where they would not offend the staid residents of London proper
    the Rose, the Swan, the Fortune, the Globe, the Red Bull and the Hope
    Other public theaters
    the Globe
    is the most famous of the public theaters because the company that Shakespeare belonged to owned it; many of his plays received their first performances here; also known as “Wooden O”
    the building proper, the stage, and the backstage area
    the Globe has three main parts
    C. Hodges
    most scholars now accept as accurate the reconstruction of the Globe published by
    Henry V
    Shakespeare referred to the Globe as ” this Wooden O” in his play
    Philip Henslowe
    bought theatrical props
    trumpets
    announced the beginning of the play
    in the great halls of castles and manor houses and in indoor, fully covered theaters in London
    the acting companies performed in two other kinds of spaces
    King’s Men
    Shakespeare’s company
    Blackfriars
    a disused monastery that was entirely roofed over
    groundlings
    grimy, snaggletoothed creatures who stood on the ground without seats
    Shakespeare
    wrote more than 36 plays and 150 poems
    Ben Johnson
    a writer who seems almost modern in the way he publicized himself; published a poem praising Shakespeare, asserting that he was superior to all Greek, Roman , and English dramtists
    Stratford-on-Avon
    Shakespeare was born in _____, a historic and prosperous market town in Warwickshire, and was christened in the parish church there on April 26, 1564
    John Shakespeare
    merchant who was once involved in the government
    Mary Arden
    came from a prominent family in the county
    Stratford
    Shakespeare attended the _____ grammar school, where he obtained an excellent education in Latin, the Bible, and English compISITION
    Anne Hathaway
    At eighteen, Shakespeare married________, the 26 year old daughter of a farmer living near Stratford; they had 3 children, a daughter named Susanna and twins named Hamnet and Judith
    plays
    Shakespeare first became interested in the theater by seeing____ in Coventry
    Robert Greene
    fellow dramatist attacked Shakespeare in print and ridiculed a passage in his early play Henry VI; died of dissipation
    Henry Chettle
    immediately apologized in print to Shakespeare and commended Shakespeare’s acting and writing abilities and his personal honesty
    Richard Burbage, Will Kemp
    Shakespeare was a member of one company, which also included the great tragic actor ___________ and the popular clown_____
    Venus and Adonis
    Shakespeare first became famous as the author of a bestseller, an erotic narrative poem called
    The Rape of Lucrece
    Shakespeare wrote the more serious poem ________, which was dedicated to a rich and extravagant young nobleman, the earl of Southhampton
    Richard III
    a chronicle or history play about a deformed usurper who became king of England
    The Comedy of Errors
    a rowdy farce about mistaken identity, based on a Latin play
    Titus Andronicus
    a blood and thunder tragedy full of rant and atrocities
    The Taming of the Shrew, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, and Love’s Labor’s Lost
    three agreeable comedies
    Romeo and Juliet
    a poetic tragedy about ill fated lovers; the Shakespeare play still most frequently taught in schools
    Heralds’ College
    By 1596, Shakespeare had his father apply to the _______ for a coat of arms that the family could display, signifying that they were “gentlefolk” or people of high social standing
    New Place
    Shakespeare bought _____, a handsome house and grounds in Stratford, a place so commodious and elegant that the queen of England once stayed there after Shakespeare’s daughter Susanna inherited it
    Lord Chamberlain’s Men
    Shakespeare also, in 1599, joined with a few other members of his company, now called the _____, to finance a new theater—the famous Globe — on the south side of the Thames
    Richard II, both parts of Henry IV, and Henry V
    During the last years of Elizabeth’s I reign, Shakespeare completed his cycle of plays about England during the Wars of the Roses:
    A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado about Nothing, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night
    Shakespeare’s comedies that are most frequently performed today
    Hamlet
    Shakespeare’s tragedy that of all his tragedies, has provoked the most varied and controversial interpretations from critics, scholars and actors
    The Merry Wives of Winsdor
    Queen Elizabeth asked Shakespeare to write _______because she wanted to see the merry, fat old knight Sir John Falstaff in love
    King James of Scotland
    Elizabeth’s successor
    King James
    immediately took the company under his patronage, renamed them the King’s Men, gave them patents to perform anywhere in the realm, provided them with special clothing for state occasions, increased their salaries, and appointed them chief members, including Shakespeare, to be grooms of the royal chamber
    Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, and Anthony and Cleopatra
    Shakespeare wrote his greatest tragedies in the early years of the 17th century while his financial affairs were flourishing
    All’s Well That Ends Well and Measure for Measure
    Comedies Shakespeare wrote in the early years of the 17th century
    the Globe and the Blackfriars
    After Shakespeare returned back to Stratford for retirement, he still took part in the management of the King’s Men and their two theaters:
    Timon of Athens and Coriolanus
    Shakespeare’s final tragedies
    Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale, and the Two Noble Kinsmen
    Shakespeare’s comedies, romances, or tragicomedies
    Henry VIII
    Shakespeare’s last English history play; contained a tribute to Queen Elizabeth; during the 1st performance the firing of the canon of Act 1 set the Globe on fire and burned it to the gorund
    Dr. John Hall
    Shakespeare’s last recorded visit to London was made with his son in law
    church ceremonies
    some scholars believe that medieval drama evolved from __________ such as the dialogue songs performed at Easter Eve services
    Stratford Church
    Shakespeare was buried under the floor of
    quartos
    eighteen plays were published in small books called ______ before Shakespeare’s partners collected them together and published them after his death
    first folio
    collection of quartos

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