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    The Construction Quality Assessment System Construction Essay

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    CONQUAS stands for Construction Quality Assessment System. Construction Industry Development Board Singapore now known as the Building and Construction Authority have developed it for the major public sector bureaus and the assorted taking industry professional organic structures to mensurate the quality degree of completed undertaking ( The National House Buyers Association ( HBA ) , 2009 ) .

    The Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) is an bureau under the Singapore ‘s Ministry of National Development. The BCA is defending the development of an first-class built environment for Singapore. “ Built environment ” refers to edifices, constructions and substructure in our milieus that provide the scene for the community ‘s activities. ” ( Building and Construction Authority, 2006 )

    At the beginning, the CONQUAS was introduced merely to the local building industry. CONQUAS have been launched since 1989 ( Building and Construction Authority, 2006 ) .

    Today, CONQUAS is widely recognized and besides accepted internationally as a benchmarking tool for quality. CONQUAS is now a registered hallmark. CONQUAS have adapted in Singapore, Malaysia, China, Hong Kong, United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa and India, UK and Hong Kong building industries ( Building and Construction Authority, 2006 ) .

    The purpose of CONQUAS was introduced to hold a standard quality appraisal system for building undertakings. Furthermore, CONQUAS is to enable quality appraisal to be carried out consistently within sensible cost and clip. Besides, CONQUAS is used to mensurate quality of constructed plants against craft criterions and specification ( Building and Construction Industry, 2005 ) .

    However, CONQUAS is an independent appraisal. It is carried out by assessors from BCA Singapore. It was designed to estimate and benchmark the quality of craft through the sampling attack. On the other manus, it means non every unit will be inspected or evaluated by the assessor. Random samples will be pre-selected and inspected to stand for the quality of the whole undertaking ( The National House Buyers Association ( HBA ) , 2009 ) .

    Since the launch of CONQUAS in 1989, more than 2,238 public and private edifice undertakings have been assessed by BCA. The entire cumulative contract value of the assessed undertakings exceeds 81.9billion Singapore dollar ( Building and Construction Authority, 2006 ) .

    In 1998, BCA introduced a figure of new characteristics to CONQUAS ensuing in the launch of CONQUAS 21 ( Building and Construction Authority, 2006 ) . Now, Malaysia is using CONQUAS 21 into the edifice undertakings.

    Problem Statement

    The standard quality of the edifice merchandise becomes the important issue that is ever discussed and disputed by the contractors, developers, and investors or house purchasers. Quality appraisal of the edifice before the developer vacant ownership to the buyer is the important issue for the developer. The developer shall bringing the concluding edifice merchandise to the buyer which the edifice is achieved a standard quality. However, how many will inquire: “ How should I guarantee the quality of the merchandise ( belongings ) that I purchased is reasonably justified with the sum of money that I paid? ” Many of the investors and the house purchaser are giving a immense money to name a celebrated Feng Shui maestro, to carry on a belongings studies and engaged belongings agent prior doing determination to put the belongings. Has the choice criterion of the edifice merchandise been assured and same as the show unit? ( The National House Buyers Association ( HBA ) , 2009 ) .

    There are many developers intended to present the concluding merchandise to the terminal user with free of defects and good in quality. Therefore, to accomplish the standard quality of the edifice production, the contractor can follow the Construction Quality Assessment ( CONQUAS 21 ) in the undertaking to give the quality confidence craft of constructing merchandise. Although, the CONQUAS 21 is applied in building industry, nevertheless, it is brought any benefits to the contractors, developers and terminal users? Furthermore, what are the impact of the CONQUAS 21 toward the contractors, developers and stop user? Consequently, the research worker will transport out the research sing the application of quality appraisal system ( CONQUAS 21 ) in building industry.

    Aims & A ; Aims

    Purposes

    To look into Quality Assessment System ( CONQUAS 21 ) in building industry.

    Aims

    To analyze the rule and construct of CONQUAS 21

    To happen out jobs occur when using the CONQUAS 21

    To happen out the advantages of utilizing CONQUAS 21

    Scope of survey

    The research will supply a item description on the criterion of CONQUAS 21 and processs of the system. This is done through literature reappraisal on diary documents, conference documents, books and shoping through web sites.

    Besides that, the research worker aims to the population of local contractors and developers who are adopted CONQUAS 21 in the building undertakings. Researcher will look into the ground of implementing the CONQUAS 21 in building industry. Furthermore, research will in-deep investigate respect the impacts and advantages of CONQUAS 21. Basically, a instance survey will be conducted to obtain more information sing the execution of CONQUAS 21.

    Research Methodologies

    Literature Research

    Cover diaries, relevant text edition, and internet research and conference paper is the beginnings that I obtain my information and making for my literature research.

    Interview

    Site agent, supervisor and the site director will be interviewed by the researched to acquire more inside informations about the CONQUAS 21. The interview is hold at Swiss Garden Residences site.

    Case Study

    Site visit to the Swiss Garden Residence would be the best manner to calculate out the effectivity of CONQUAS 21. Besides that, it is to calculate out the jobs occur when using the CONQUAS 21.

    Chapter Outline

    Chapter 1: Introduction

    In this chapter, the research worker is traveling to somewhat present the background of CONQUAS. Besides that, the research worker is traveling to speak about the purposes and aims for this research.

    Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal

    In this chapter, the research worker is traveling to discourse the construct and rule of CONQUAS 21. The information sing the CONQUAS 21 are obtained from the literatures from books, articles, diaries and web site. Furthermore, the research worker is traveling to notice on the advantages of CONQUAS 21 and the impact of using the CONQUAS 21.

    Chapter 3: Planing the instance survey and research methodological analysis

    The research worker is traveling to utilize Swiss Garden Residences as the instance survey for CONQUAS 21. The research worker is traveling to interview the undertaking director, site director and site agent for obtaining the relevant information.

    Chapter 4: Analysis of the secondary informations

    After roll uping the information, the research worker is traveling to make the analysis for the information obtained. The research worker is traveling to reason on the information obtained and give some sentiment sing the CONQUAS 21.

    Chapter 5: Decision and farther surveies

    In this chapter, the research worker is traveling to do a decision for the whole research and province out the farther surveies for quality appraisal.

    Plan and Agenda

    Planned Agenda

    2009/2010

    2010/2011

    Second Semester

    First Semester

    Second Semester

    Nov

    Dec

    May

    June

    July

    Aug

    Sep

    Oct

    Nov

    Dec

    Introduction

    Literature Review

    Planing instance survey

    Analysis

    Decision

    Actual Agenda

    2009/2010

    2010/2011

    Second Semester

    First Semester

    Second Semester

    Nov

    Dec

    May

    June

    July

    Aug

    Sep

    Oct

    Nov

    Dec

    Introduction

    Literature Review

    Planing instance survey

    Analysis

    Decision

    Chapter 2

    Literature Review

    2.1 Quality Philosophy

    Definition of Quality

    Different party defines the quality in different manner. Some people will specify it as to run into contract demands, alternatively some people define it as the satisfaction of client and others besides define as it reaches the needed criterions. ‘Totality of features of an entity that bear on its ability to fulfill stated or implied demands ‘ is the definition that The National Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) defines quality ( Chung, 1999 ) . The purposes or demands have been fulfilled or reached by any party, intend the quality criterion has been achieved.

    Furthermore, quality besides can be defined based on ain sentiment such as ‘providing clients with merchandises and services that systematically meet their demands and outlooks ‘ ( S.L. Tang, 2005 ) , ‘performance to the criterion expected by the client ‘ ( S.L. Tang, 2005 ) and ‘fitness for intent ‘ ( Chung, 1999 ) .

    However, the definiton of quality is based on how a party to specify, it can be defined is several manner.

    Basic Concept of Quality

    Quality is the most of import factor to be concerned in every field including building field. In order to accomplish the quality, the industries have come out with there are assessment system and guidelines to be carried out to guarantee the plants done in the building industry can accomplish the quality. ISO 9001:2000, Quality Assessment System in Construction ( QLASSIC ) and Construction Quality Assessment ( CONQUAS ) is the appraisal system that ever used by constrction industry to guarantee the plants done reach the quality standard demand. Case survey of CONQUAS will be carried out in more inside informations later.

    Quality can be quantified as follows: –

    Q=P/E

    Where,

    Q = quality

    P = public presentation

    E = outlook

    If Q is greater than 1.0, so the client has a good feeling about the merchandises or services ( Besterfield, 1998 ) .

    Furthermore, There are nine dimensions in the quality. All dimensions are independent, which means that an terminal merchandise can be first-class in one dimension but hapless in others ( Besterfield, 1998 ) . These nine dimensions inside informations and their footings is the followers: –

    Table 1: Nine dimensions of quality and their footings

    Dimension

    Footings

    Performances

    Primary products/service characteristic such as clip, cost and craft facet.

    Features

    Secondary feature, added consideration such as creativeness in design and attractivenes.

    Conformity

    Meeting specification or industry criterions, craft and client ‘s demand in contract.

    Dependability

    Consistency of public presentation over clip, mean clip for the unit to neglect.

    Lastingness

    Useful life period with less care or fix.

    Service

    Resolution of jobs and ailments, easiness of fix.

    Response

    Human to human interface such as efficiency during meeting, fast determination devising, effectual human resources direction.

    Aestheticss

    Centripetal features in design such as exterior coatings.

    Reputaion

    Past public presentation such as being ranked foremost in the tendering procedure.

    Adapted from Garvin, 1988, Pull offing Quality: The strategic and Competitive Edge, New York: Free Press.

    Furthermore, there are ever the relationship between quality with cost, value, rhythm clip and productiveness. The inside informations of the relationship is shown as followers: –

    Quality and Productivity

    Productivity addition will act upon the quality by betterment

    Productivity = Salcable end product / Resources used

    Quality and Costss

    Cost will increase if the quality of conformity addition

    Cost will increase if the quality of design addition

    Quality and Cycle Time

    The rhythm clip will be cut down if there is betterment of quality attempt

    The rhythm clip to finish the activities is the cardinal parametric quantity

    Quality and Value

    Organizations must evalute the value they provide, comparative to the competition

    Value = Quality / Price

    ( S.L. Tang, 2005 )

    2.1.3 Quality Management

    Quality direction will act upon the quality straight. The rules of quality direction are applicable to every industry, within all administrations and at every degree ( McCabe, 1988 ) . The basic end of quality direction is the riddance of failure: both in the construct and world of merchandises, services and procedures ( Juran, 1989 ) .

    The quality direction is defined as “ all activities of the overall direction map that determine the quality policy, aims and duties, and implement them by agencies such as quality planning, quality control, quality confidence, and quality betterment within the quality system ” ( McCabe, 1988 )

    The quality direction have four phases in development, known as: Quality Inspection, Quality Control ( QC ) , Quality Assurance ( QA ) and Entire Quality Management ( TQM ) ( UTM, 2003 ) . Inspection and Quality Control are retrospective ; their purpose is find out the occurred job by sensing manner. Alternatively, the purpose of Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management is cut down and to avoid jobs happening ( McCabe, 1988 ) . The feature of the different phases in Quality Management as shown followers: –

    Figure 1: The four phases of quality direction

    TQM

    QA

    QC

    Inspection

    Adapted from Dale, Boaden and Lescelles 1994: Degrees of entire quality direction acceptance

    Figure 2: The four phases of quality direction

    Quality Assurance

    Quality systems development

    Advanced quality planning

    Comprehensive quality manuals

    Use of quality costs

    Engagement of non-production operations

    Failure manner

    Entire Quality Management

    Policy deployment

    Involve providers and clients

    Involve all operations

    Process direction

    Performance direction

    Teamwork

    Employee engagement

    Quality Control

    Develop quality manual

    Procedure public presentation informations

    Self-inspection

    Merchandise proving

    Basic quality planning

    Use of basic statistics

    Paperwork controls

    Inspection

    Salvage

    Screening, rating, relending

    Corrective actions

    Identify beginnings of non-conformance

    Adapted from Steven McCabe 1988: Quality Improvement Techniques in Construction

    Phase 1: Inspection

    The first phase of quality direction is review. The review is defined as “ activity such as measurement, analyzing, proving or estimating one or more features of an entity and comparing these consequences with specified demands in order to set up whether conformance is achieved for each feature ” ( McCabe, 1988 ) .

    Inspection is used by most of the building industry to guarantee the conformity. The site supervisor will carried out the review of the building undertaking. The supervisor will do the comparing the architectural plants and structural based on the specification and drawing. If there is any faulty plants found by the clients, the contractor demand to rectify the faulty plants until fulfill the client ‘s demand.

    Phase 2: Quality Control ( QC )

    Quality control will be carried out after the review done. Quality control is considered as a system of everyday proficient activities, to mensurate and command the quality of the stock list as it is being developed ( Mangino, 1996 ) .

    The process of Quality control is really complicated. QC largely is based on the statistical analysis. Collection of informations is required in QC to keep the quality by statistical techniques.

    Phase 3: Quality Assurance

    Quality confidence is defined as “ all the planned activities implemented within the quality system, and demonstrated as needed, to supply equal assurance that an entity will carry through demands for quality ” ( McCabe, 1988 ) .

    The aim of Quality Assurance ( QA ) is to supply equal assurance that a service or merchandise will carry through clients ‘ demand by executing system audit, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, design of experiment and similar enterprises ( UTM, 2003 ) . In other words, QA is more specified on planning. The bar of hapless quality and defects is based on sensing activities.

    Phase 4: Entire Quality Management

    The concluding phase of quality direction is Entire Quality Management. The execution and apprehension of quality direction rules and constructs in every facet of concern activities are involved in this phase. The best service or merchandise will be provided to the client at the lower cost by utilizing these activities.

    However, TQM is less formal ; holding either processs or system, and it is difficult to be described due to it is less in formality ( McCabe, 1988 ) . Normally, merely counsel will be provided by TQM and it consider as a doctrine.

    Concept and Principles of CONQUAS 21

    2.2.1 Introduction

    Recently, the demand of clients towards the edifice that they purchase is quality. They wish to acquire the best quality of the purchase edifice as possible. In this status, the developers have to play an of import function to guarantee the quality of the edifice undertaking. The developers overcome the job by utilizing Quality Assurance ( QA ) and Quality Control ( QC ) into the building undertaking to keep the criterion of quality as the demand. CONQUAS 21, ISO 9001:2000, QLASSIC will go the pick for the developers for their appraisal system. Case survey about CONQUAS 21 will be carried out by the research worker in more inside informations.

    2.2.2 Aims of CONQUAS 21

    There are three aims in the CONQUAS 21 system:

    Act as a standard quality appraisal system in building undertakings.

    Inspecting quality appraisal by:

    Measuring the specification and criterion of the craft in the plants done

    Randomly choosing the sample as represent the whole undertaking

    To enable quality appraisal consistently take topographic point within sensible cost and clip

    ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 )

    Scope of CONQUAS 21

    In CONQUAS 21 system, all the plants done will be given points based on the quality criterion. All of the given points will be added together to acquire the entire quality mark which besides known as CONQUAS mark for the building undertaking ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 ) . The quality craft is better, the higher of CONQUAS mark will be obtained. 100 % is the maximal CONQUAS mark in building undertaking, but our human being is unable to build a work with zero-defects.

    The general edifice plant is covered by CONQUAS 21 system. There are 3 constituents in the appraisal:

    Structural Plants

    Architectural Works and

    Mechanical & A ; Electrical ( M & A ; E ) Works

    There are different point to be assessed in the different constituent stated above ( Building and Construction Authority, 2005 ) .

    CONQUAS 21 is considered as ‘first clip right ‘ review attack ( Building and Construction Authority, 2005 ) means that the rectification plants will non take into consideration in CONQUAS 21 mark for the appraisal. Furthermore, trying system is the appraisal system used in the CONQUAS. The assessor will take the unit harmonizing to the norm, 1-in-4 flat units in a residential development for the appraisal ( Building and Construction Authority, 2005 ) . Thus, which unit will be chosen is unknown so the contractors have to guarantee all of the constructed plants are in good quality status. If there is any faulty found, the plants will be considered as failed.

    Besides, the to a great extent equipment-base such as heavy foundation, sub-structure plants and stacking is non available for appraisal and the work separate contracts or sub-contracts are non included in the appraisal ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 ) .

    The review is different with the review done by the site supervisor. Normally, the contractors have to intentionally make an agreement for the review which form a specific squad for the review. There is a guideline have to be followed for the appraisal.

    Components to be assessed

    Structural Works, Architectural Works and M & A ; E Works are the constituents under CONQUAS 21 appraisal.

    Structural Plants

    Structural Works can be considered as ‘body ‘ for a edifice, the stableness of the edifice will be affected if there is failure or defect in structural plants. Therefore, keep its quality is necessary due to the cost of rectification is really expensive. Below show the inside informations of the appraisal of Structural Works: –

    Inspection of finished concrete, formwork and steel support have to be carried out on site during the building site. If any constituent constitutes exceed 20 % of the entire structural cost, the pre-stressed concrete and structural steel are included in the appraisal. If found the precast concrete volume more than 20 % of structural concrete volume, the precast elements have to be assessed.

    Tensile strength of steel support and testing of compressive strength of concrete will be carried out on research lab testing.

    Non-destructive testing of the uniformity and the screen of hard-boiled concrete.

    ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 )

    Appendix 1 shows the quality criterions of Structural Works.

    Architectural Works

    The constituents and coatings are classified in Architectural Works. The craft and quality can be easy seen and found. Below are the inside informations of appraisal of Architectural Works: –

    After the edifice have complete, the appraisal have to be carried out on roofs, external plants, external walls and internal coatings. All the appraisal have to be carried out on site. Internal walls, doors, constituents, Windowss and floors are classified under the internal coatings.

    Functional and material trials such as on external walls and adhesion of internal wall tiles and water-tightness of window.

    ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 )

    Appendix 2 shows Architectural Works quality criterion.

    Mechanical & A ; Electrical ( M & A ; E ) Works

    The advancement of whole edifice will be influenced by M & A ; E Works. Air conditioning & A ; Mechanical Ventilation Works ( ACMV ) , Electrical works, the footing M & A ; E adjustments and Fire Protection Works are classified under the advancement of the edifice. Below are the phase of appraisal: –

    Concealed pipes, ACMV ductworks and electrical conduits are classified as installed plants, the review on the point have to be carried out before embedded on site.

    The chilling tower, fire dismay control panel and Air-Handling Unit ( AHU ) are the concluding installed plants which the appraisal have to be carried out on site.

    Dry Riser Test, Earthing Test and Water Pressure Test are considered as selected plants. The public presentation trials are carried out on them.

    ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 )

    Appendix 3 show the choice criterion of M & A ; E Works.

    The Weightages

    Cat A ( Commercial, Industrial, Institution and Others ) , CAT B ( Condominium, Institution and Others ) , CAT C ( Public lodging ) , and CAT D ( Landed belongingss ) are the four classs of edifice that distribute the weightages for M & A ; E Works, Architectural Works and Structural Works in CONQUAS 21 system.

    The aim of weightage system is doing the quality of a edifice is based on the CONQUAS mark, it is a via media between the cost proportions of the three constituents in the assorted edifices and their aesthetic consideration ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 ) .

    In general, M & A ; E works consist 10 % for four classs of edifice in norm, 35 % is consisted by the Structural plants and the highest per centum is consisted by Architectural plants which 50 % in norm for the four classs of edifices. The quality of Architect works is the most of import with the highest per centum, second is represented by the Structural plants and M & A ; E works is the lowest.

    Table 2: The Weightages in CONQUAS 21

    Components

    CAT A Commercial, Industrial, Institution & A ; Others

    CAT B Commercial, Industrial, Institution & A ; Others

    CAT C Public Housing

    CAT D Landed Properties

    Structural Plants

    30 %

    35 %

    45 %

    40 %

    Architectural Works

    50 %

    55 %

    50 %

    55 %

    M & A ; E Works

    20 %

    10 %

    5 %

    5 %

    CONQUAS Mark

    100 %

    100 %

    100 %

    100 %

    Note: In general, undertakings with cardinal chilling system holding chilling tower, hair-raiser system, etc are classified under CAT A. Otherwise, it will be classified under CAT B. Appendix 5 provides a ushers with listing of constructing under the assorted classs.

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) : CONQUAS 21 manual book

    CONQUAS Assessor

    In CONQUAS 21 system, merely the Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) officer can be the assessor to inspect the plants done of the undertaking. BCA will carry on a standardization plan and preparation for assessors to go to to guarantee competence and consistence in the appraisal ( Building and Construction Authority, 2006 ) .

    Furthermore, CONQUAS 21 system is consider as independent appraisal. Therefore, if the edifice or parts of the edifice undertaking are acceptable, the designers and applied scientists are non allowed to utilize CONQUAS to do any determination unless the edifice contract stipulate it ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 ) .

    Sampling

    Sampling system is introduced in the CONQUAS 21 system for the appraisal. It is impossible for us to inspect every unit of the plants done. Therefore, the sampling system is used for the appraisal, it helps the accessor a batch by salvaging the clip and do the appraisal easier due to the samples will be indiscriminately chosen by the assessor for review.

    Furthermore, the trying system want to do certain the review is sufficient to stand for the whole edifice by mentioning to the gross floor country of the edifice.

    The appraisal of CONQUAS 21

    Assessment attack

    Sampling system is used by the CONQUAS 21 as the appraisal system, the sample will be indiscriminately selected for the quality appraisal harmonizing to the location program and drawing program and it will be distributed based on the building phases ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 ) .

    The marking will be done on the plants that are inspected for the first clip because the aim of this pattern is to promote contractors “ making things right the first clip ” is the rule of the CONQUAS 21 system which want to do certain all the contractor do the plants good and keep the quality in first clip. Therefore, the marking will non take into history for the rectification works, merely the first clip works done will be inspected and scored in the CONQUAS 21 system ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 ) .

    In make fulling the appraisal signifier, “ Ten ” intend the work done do non carry through the CONQUAS quality criterion after review on it. Alternatively, “ ” see the inspected work have reached the quality criterion stated in the CONQUAS system. Besides, non applicable point will be noted as “ – ” in the assessment signifier. The figure of “ ” over the entire figure of point assessed is the concluding mark of CONQUAS for the whole undertaking.

    Structural plants appraisal

    After the whole undertakings have been completed, the review on structural plants merely can be done. Wall, slab, beam and column can be classified as the Structural plants. Below show the inside informations of the appraisal of a strengthened concrete construction: –

    Table 3: The appraisal of a strengthened concrete construction

    Reinforced Concrete Structure

    Weightage %

    Formwork

    15

    Rebar

    20

    Finished Concrete

    25

    Concrete Quality

    5

    Steel Reinforcement Quality

    5

    NDT – UPV trial for concrete uniformity

    15

    NDT – Electro-Cover metre trial for concrete screen

    15

    Entire

    100

    *If entire precast concrete volume exceeds 20 % of entire structural concrete volume, appraisal will be carried out for precast concrete building. The points will be distributed proportionally between formwork/rebar appraisal and precast concrete appraisal based on the several concrete volume per centum.

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority: CONQUAS 21 manual book

    The structural plants appraisal is carried out by utilizing trying system which mean merely portion of the samples have been chosen to stand for whole undertaking for the appraisal, non every unit is inspected. Therefore, there are some guidelines for the appraisal of structural plants. The guidelines are shown as below: –

    Table 4: Guidelines for Structural plants appraisal

    Items

    GFA per Sample

    Min Sample

    Max Sample

    Remarks

    1

    Structural Elementss

    500 M2

    30

    150

    For Non-Housing Project

    1a

    Strctural Elementss

    1500 M2

    30

    50

    For Housing Project

    2

    Concrete Compressive Strength

    100 %

    Declaration by Qualified Person

    3

    Steel support Tensile Strength

    100 %

    Declaration by Qualified Person

    4

    NDT – UPV trial for concrete uniformity

    5,000 M2

    2 sets

    20 sets

    5 construction members per set

    5

    NDT – Electro-Cover metre trial for concrete screen

    5,000 M2

    2 sets

    20 sets

    5 construction members per set

    Note: The computed figure of elements to be checked must be equally distributed throughout the full block and screen at least 50 % of floors in a block. They should besides every bit far as possible cover the different types of structural elements.

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority: CONQUAS 21 manual book

    The review is merely site review, the review can non be done at precast pace due to all the construction works to be inspected is cast unmoved concrete plants, non the precast constituent. The review of the structural plant is harmonizing to conformity to the criterions ( see in the Appendix 1, 1a, 1b & A ; 1c ) .

    The farther appraisal will be required if the structural steelwork in the structural plants exceed 20 % of the structural cost and the points will be distributed proportionally. The Pre-stressing Works is similar with the structural steelwork ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 ) .

    Below table show how the points of pre-stressed concrete and structural steelwork are distributed: –

    Table 5: Structural Steelwork

    Structural Steelwork

    Weightage %

    Main member/Partially Assembled Component

    40

    Metallic element Decking

    20

    Erection Tolerances

    10

    Corrosion & A ; Fire Protection

    10

    Welding Test Reports

    20

    Entire

    100

    Note: Appraisal for structural steel roof truss is mandatory irregardless of the 20 % bing standards.

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority: CONQUAS 21 manual book

    Table 6: Pre-stressed Concrete

    Pre-stressed Concrete

    Weightage %

    Tendon & A ; Anchorage

    25

    Sheathing

    25

    Stressing & A ; Grouting

    25

    Debonding

    25

    Entire

    100

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority: CONQUAS 21 manual book

    Table 7: Choice of Samples for Structural Steelwork

    Items

    Steel tunnage per sample

    Min Sample

    Structural Elementss

    Main member/Partially Assembled Component

    250

    5

    Metallic element Decking

    250

    5

    Erection Tolerances

    500

    5

    Corrosion & A ; Fire Protection

    500

    5

    Material & A ; Functional Test

    Welding Test Reports ( NDT )

    All critical welding articulations

    Note: Samples will be taken earlier and after installing

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority: CONQUAS 21 manual book

    Architectural Works Assessment

    After the edifice undertaking is completed, the review of Architectural plants will be taken topographic point to mensurate the quality of the plants done but with a status all of the appraisal have to be done before the contractor grip over the undertaking to the proprietor. Below show the inside informations of the appraisal of Architectural plants: –

    Table 8: The Assessment of Architectural Works

    Architectural Elementss

    Weightage %

    Entire

    Breakdown

    Internal Finishes

    56

    Floor

    16

    Internal wall

    16

    Ceiling

    6

    Door

    6

    Window

    6

    Component

    6

    Roof

    4

    4

    External Wall

    12

    12

    External Work

    6

    6

    Material & A ; Functional Trials

    22

    Pre-packed Plaster

    1

    Field Window Water-Tightness Test ( WTT ) ( BCA Test 8 platinums + Self-Testing 2 platinums )

    10

    Wet Area Water-Tihtness Test ( BCA Test 4 platinums + Self-Testing 1 platinum )

    5

    Internal Wet Area Waterproofing Process

    2

    Pull-Off-Test for Internal Wall Tiles

    4

    Entire

    100

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority: CONQUAS 21 manual book

    Architectural plants is utilizing trying system for appraisal excessively which is similar to the Structural plants, Architectural works have its ain guideline for the sampling. Different classs of edifice are varied in the guideline stated. Below are the guidelines of the sampling: –

    Table 9: Guidelines for Architectural Works Assessment

    Items

    GFA per Sample

    Min Sample

    Max Sample

    Remarks

    1

    Internal Finishes

    500 M2

    30

    150

    For Non-Housing Project

    1a

    Internal Finishes

    70 M2

    30

    800

    For all Private Housing Project

    1b

    Internal Finishes

    70 M2

    30

    600

    For Public Housing

    2

    External Wall

    50 %

    50 % of the blocks/units

    3

    External Work

    1

    1 for each type of external work

    4

    Pre-packed Plaster

    Merely pre-packed plaster used. Declaration by Qualified Person

    5a

    Field Window Water-tightness Test ( WTT )

    1,000 M2

    20

    100

    Conducted by BCA

    5b

    Field Window Water-tightness Test ( WTT )

    25 %

    Self-Testing with declaration by Qualified Person

    6a

    Wet Area Water-tightness Test

    20

    100

    10 % of all bathroom and/or lavatories ( by location )

    All will be tested if & lt ; 20 nos

    6b

    Wet Area Water-tightness Test

    100 %

    Self-Testing with declaration by Qualified Person

    Including level roof

    7

    Internal Wet Area Waterproofing Process

    In-process appraisal based on sanctioned Method Statement

    8

    Pull-Off Test for Internal Wall Tiles

    10,000 M2

    1 Set

    5 Sets

    5 tiles per set ( by location )

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority: CONQUAS 21 manual book

    Hall, kitchen, lavatory, corridor, anteroom and room is considered as the functional infinite in the edifice. The appraisal of functional infinite of a edifice is classified as internal coatings appraisal. Below show types of locations: –

    Service locations – public-service corporation countries such as lavatories, kitchens, balconies and paces

    Principal location – major functional topographic points such as hall and suites

    Circulation locations – include lift anterooms, corridors and stairwaies

    ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 )

    There is different weightage for the different location. Appendix 4 show the defect group which influence the internal coatings hiting. The point which noted as failed mean the point do non carry through the quality criterion that CONQUAS 21 system require. If there is faulty plants found, the plants is indicated as failed in the review record such as grounds of H2O ooze in the window.

    The appraisal for the external plants have to be done first before transporting out the assesssment for the external plant. There are some location will be divided during the external plant appraisal. Below show the location that contain in the appraisal of the external plants: –

    Link-way/Shelter – 10m length subdivision per sample and minimal 2 samples

    Apron & A ; Drain – 10m length subdivision per sample and minimal 2 samples

    Roadwork & A ; Carpark – 10m length subdivision per sample and minimal 1 sample

    Footpaths & A ; Turfing – 10m length subdivision per sample and minimal 2 samples

    Playground – 1 location

    Court – 1 location

    Fencing & A ; Gate – 10m length subdivision per sample and minimal 1 sample

    Swiming Pool – 10m length subdivision per sample and minimal 1 sample

    Club House – 1 location

    Guard House – 1 location

    Electrical Substaion – 1 location

    ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 )

    Every point will be inspected individually in the appraisal of the External plants. Those points that are non available for the edifice undertaking, it will non be taken into history during marking.

    M & A ; E Works Assessment

    The M & A ; E appraisal is non similar as Architectural plants and Structural works appraisal. In the M & A ; E works appraisal, the appraisal have been separate into two phases which is after the edifice have completed phase and during the building of structural plants phase. The classs of the undertakings distribute the weightage for M & A ; E works appraisal: –

    Table 10: The Assessment of M & A ; E Works

    M & A ; E Elementss

    CATA

    CAT B

    CAT C

    CAT D

    M & A ; E Works Assessment

    Electrical

    15

    15

    10

    10

    ACMV

    20

    20

    10

    Fire Protection

    10

    10

    10

    Plumbing & A ; Sanitary

    15

    15

    20

    Basic Adjustments

    15

    15

    20

    Sub-total

    75

    75

    100

    100

    Weightage

    50 %

    50 %

    100 %

    100 %

    M & A ; E Performance Test Appraisal

    Performance Testing

    100

    100

    Weightage

    50 %

    50 %

    Entire

    100 %

    100 %

    100 %

    100 %

    Note 1: “ – ” means that no appraisal on that M & A ; E elements is required

    Note 2: Please mention to Appendix 6 for inside informations of the points allocated under each component of the M & A ; E plants assessed

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority: CONQUAS 21 manual book

    Furthermore, “ Get-It-Right-First-Time ” is the rule in CONQUAS 21 system, all the points stated in Table 10 above will be merely inspected for the first clip works done in the appraisal, all the rectification plants will non impact the marking in the appraisal. It means that the per centum of trials go throughing the first appraisal for each type of trial is the concluding mark of CONQUAS ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2006 ) .

    Table 11: Marking method for “ Get-It-Right-First-Time ” rule

    Ave % Passing at First Attempt

    % of Performance Test Mark

    80 % or below

    0 %

    80 % & lt ; X & lt ; 100 %

    ( X-80 ) /20 ten 100 %

    100 %

    100 %

    Note: “ Ten ” means the mean per centum of go throughing at first effort

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority: CONQUAS 21 manual book

    Furthermore, M & A ; E works is besides utilizing trying system for their appraisal system. There is M & A ; E works trying guideline. The M & A ; E works trying guideline is different with others which there are four classs of edifice decide the M & A ; E trying plants. The guidelines are shown as below:

    Table 12: Guidelines for M & A ; E Works Assessment

    Cat A 1,000 M2 per sample

    CAT B 1,500 M2 per sample

    CAT C 3,500 M2 per sample

    CAT D 3,500 M2 per sample

    Electrical

    Embedded conduit

    2+

    2+

    2+

    Main overseas telegrams

    1

    1

    Surface conduits

    1+

    1+

    1+

    1+

    Cable tray, ladder & A ; trunking

    1+

    1+

    1+

    11

    Distribution board

    2+

    2+

    1

    ACMV

    Air managing unit

    1+

    Pump

    1

    Cooling tower

    1

    Hair-raiser

    1

    Organ pipe

    1

    Split unit/Window air conditioner

    2+

    2+

    3+

    Air-con comfort

    1+

    1+

    2+

    Ductwork

    3+

    1

    Fire-rated canal

    1

    1

    Dampers

    1+

    1

    Fire Dampers

    1

    1

    Flexible canals

    2

    Flexible connections

    1

    Fire Protection

    Wet/dry riser

    1+

    1+

    1+

    Sprinkler

    1+

    1

    Fire Alarm

    1

    1

    Hosereel

    1+

    1+

    1+

    Plumbing & A ; Sanitary

    Concealed pipes

    1+

    1+

    Exposed pipes

    4+

    4+

    4+

    Water armored combat vehicle

    1

    1

    1

    Pump

    1

    1

    1

    Minimal Samples

    35

    25

    10

    10

    Maximal Samples

    70

    50

    20

    20

    Remarks: + means to be separated for extra samples required

    Note: Basic M & A ; E Fittings – 500m2 per sample with min 30 and max 150 samples

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority: CONQUAS 21 manual book

    Calculation of CONQUAS Score

    BCA have introduced the marking method for mensurating the quality of plants done in CONQUAS 21 system with few stairss, the stairss have to be followed while transporting out the hiting method. Below show the illustration of hiting method computed in CONQUAS 21 system which can establish in CONQUAS 21 manual book: –

    Scenario:

    Undertaking Type – Commercial ( CAT A )

    Structural System – Reinforced Concrete system with 31 % precast concrete volume

    and steel mills at 75 % to 25 % cost ratio

    Roofing System – Flat Roof

    Nos of Toilet – 10 nos

    External Wall – Full Glass Curtain Wall

    Measure 1: Calculation of Structural Score

    The Structural Score will be proportioned by the cost ratio as follows:

    Measure 2: Calculation of Architectural Score

    Measure 3: Calculation of M & A ; E Score

    Measure 4: Calculation of Final CONQUAS Score

    Adapted from Building and Construction Authority: CONQUAS 21 manual book

    The Advantages of Implementing CONQUAS 21

    Quality is the chief factor that to be concerned in a building undertaking. It is the nature of the building, the edifice value will be increase with the good quality building. The CIDB Singapore ‘s informations base show that the quality of the building undertaking improves with utilizing CONQUAS 21, which the building costs of public sector edifice are at least S $ 3 million. The CONQUAS mark rise from 67.9 to 74.3 in 8 old ages ( 1989-1997 ) ( Low, S.P. , Tan, B.K. and Allen, A.A.L. , 1999 ) .

    The image of a house will be influenced by a good CONQUAS mark path record to guarantee future marketability. The figure of client will automatically increase with addition of the image of a house ( Building and Construction Authority, 2006 ) . All the employers want to do certain their merchandise can be delivered to the purchasers with good quality so they prefer to take the companies which have achieved good quality in the old undertakings. A good CONQUAS mark attract more people to put in the undertaking due to high quality undertaking. There is a one-year BCA Construction Excellence Award victors to be competed to win the award which selected by BCA based on the well CONQUAS public presentation. The image of the companies automatically increase if win the award ( Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , 2010 ) .

    There is an inducement in the CONQUAS system attract the contractor to present the good quality edifice based on accomplishing good mark in the CONQUAS appraisal. For the undertaking which achieve the mark of above 75 points would acquire an inducements of entire RM 1,500,000.00 alternatively RM 1,000,000.00 merely will be given for the mark of above 65 points. ( Building and Construction Authority, 2006 ) . This attractive inducement becomes a beginning of motive and promote to present a good quality edifice.

    Besides, the CONQUAS system besides measure the quality of craft of the building. If found there is any unsatisfactory of the craft after mensurating in CONQUAS mark, the unsatisfactory of craft can be rectified before deliver to the buyer. Although the rectification can non increase the CONQUAS mark, but the better quality of merchandise can be delivered to purchaser to increase the satisfaction of the buyer and diminish the ailments from the buyer or cut down the rectification cost after vacant ownership ( The National House Buyers Association ( HBA ) , 2009 ) .

    The Problems Occur When Applying CONQUAS 21

    There are some disadvantages in the CONQUAS 21. It is hard to guarantee the public presentation of the company based on the CONQUAS 21 mark due to every undertaking is non similar in nature. The undertaking where utilize the precast constituents is executable such as level or school is easier to keep the quality direction comparison to the traditional dramatis personae in situ building because precast constituents are manufactured under controlled mill status, all the dimensions, sizes and forms are stated clearly. Therefore, the precast constituent is easier to be fixed on site. Alternatively, the contractor may confront the job while in the traditional cast-in-situ building which there is no specified size and dimension constituent provided, all have to project in situ, it is hard to command the quality of work. The building method will impact the CONQUAS mark.

    CONQUAS 21 have its ain guideline sing the structural plants, architectural plants and M & A ; E work. For the individual in-charge for CONQUAS 21 review, have to follow the guideline province during the review. The review is different with the review done by the site supervisor. So the contractors have to intentionally make an agreement for this review which organic and specific squad under the review. In straight, with this excess review will protract the continuance of the undertaking.

    Every appraisal will be charged for assessment cost. The cost CONQUAS 21 appraisal will be higher comparison to ISO 9001-2000 and QLASSIS, it will increase the building cost. Due to higher building cost, the merchandising monetary value will be increase in market ( The National House Buyers Association ( HBA ) , 2009 ) .

    Furthermore, the mark can non wholly represent the quality of the edifice due to the mark is derived simply based on a random sample appraisal to stand for the whole building undertaking. ( The National House Buyers Association ( HBA ) , 2009 ) . There might is any defect although the mark is high due to non whole units assessed by the CONQUAS system.

    The Summary

    In the recent old ages, there are a batch of developers in Malaysia building industry implementing CONQUAS as the quality appraisal for their edifice undertaking although the CIDB Malaysia has recommended QLASSIS. The CONQUAS can be considered as a new appraisal system in Malaysia building industry due to the quality appraisal system merely adopted by the building industry late although CONQUAS system was launched since 1989 in Singapore. The chief factor that the CONQUAS system will be adopted in the Malaysia building industry is the developers found CONQUAS system have more benefits compare to QLASSIS and ISO 9001:2000.

    The CONQUAS system step the quality of the plants done in more inside informations and it is more beforehand comparison to other appraisal system that why most of developers prefer to implement CONQUAS 21 in their building undertaking.

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