A competent design squad is important for any new edifice undertaking harmonizing to Lee ( 2008:127 ) . The measure surveyor can be a really valuable add-on to the design squad for the client, giving adept advice on contractual and fiscal affairs. The measure surveyor will hold the client ‘s involvement as his figure one precedence and his services can be of great value to any individual sing building a new edifice.
Harmonizing to Bowles & A ; Le Roux ( 1992:1 ) any individual sing edifice or investment in building undertakings needs adept advice from a measure surveyor. No affair the size or complexness of a undertaking, the measure surveyor provides valuable advice through the assorted phases of the undertaking. The Guide for Quantity Surveying Appointments ( 2006 ) states that “ any client who is sing constructing any construction of any size, altering an bing construction or investment in building undertakings no affair how simple or complex, needs the adept advice of a professional measure surveyor for set uping budgets, hard currency flows, cost planning, cost direction and obtaining value for money. ”
Construction undertakings differ from each other and every undertaking has its ain alone challenges. Construction undertakings are non standard merchandises which have been designed and mass manufactured in a controlled environment. There is a deficiency of a comparatively stable market monetary value. This is due to monthly payments which are made as the work returns, before the undertaking reaches completion. As a consequence of technological, fiscal and economical influences the methods adopted for building work are varied and complex and the adept advice of a measure surveyor should be obtained before the start of any undertaking planning. This is the chief grounds why there is a demand for the services of a measure surveyor. ( Bowles & A ; Le Roux, 1992:2 )
The ordinary member of the general populace has small cognition or experience in the building industry. However economically active persons who can be seen as possible clients for residential building undertakings are frequently loath to use the services of a professional measure surveyor.
Harmonizing to Lee ( 2008:123 ) , a possible booby trap for the first-time householder is to use the services of a non-reputable contractor who is non affiliated to the National Home Builders Registration Council ( NHBRC ) . Members of the general populace who are non experienced in the building industry can be subjected to un-ethical patterns and this may take to their development. Due to the many jobs caused by these un-ethical and non-reputable contractors to the householders and other belongings professionals, the South African authorities passed statute law in 2001 known as the Housing Consumers Protection Measures Act. The purpose of this Act is to guard householders against non-reputable contractors who build to substandard quality and so decline to be held responsible. ( Lee, 2008:123 )
One factor which may discourage people from utilizing the services of a measure surveyor is the professional fees. Harmonizing to research done by Cruywagen and Snyman ( 2005 ) professional measure appraising services can be rendered as low-cost in South Africa. The research shows that, due to the fight of the market, it has become the norm for measure surveyors to cut down professional fees.
Cruywagen and Snyman ( 2005 ) , province that there is a distinguishable relationship between the profitableness for the measure surveyor and the value of a undertaking. This means residential undertakings are non profitable as compared to large industrial developments, shopping centres etc. This may be the ground for the deficiency of selling in the residential sector and why the general populace is non cognizant of the measure appraising profession.
The intent of this survey is to place and understand the specific function of the professional measure surveyor in the building industry and to explicate the important consequence a measure surveyor can hold on a building undertaking.
1.2 Problem Statement
The general populace who is non involved in the building industry is incognizant of the measure appraising profession and the maps the measure surveyor perform and this deficiency of cognition can take to development.
For the intent of this survey the undermentioned hypotheses are set out:
The general populace is incognizant of the measure appraising profession and the services the profession provide.
Fees associated with the measure surveyor may intimidate householders who are looking to finish a undertaking with every bit small investing as possible, non recognizing that the measure surveyor can salvage you a significant sum of money by supplying you with adept advice on fiscal and contractual affairs.
This survey has four primary aims. The aims are to:
Outline the specific function of the measure surveyor.
Recognize the major consequence a measure surveyor can hold on a edifice undertaking
Make the general public aware of the measure appraising profession and the maps the measure surveyor performs.
To larn why the general populace is loath to utilize the services of a measure surveyor.
A qualitative research attack will be follow for the intent of this survey. The research worker will carry on a comprehensive reappraisal of relevant literature on the subject. The research worker will concentrate on the measure appraising profession and the services it provide.
Extensive personal interviews will be conducted with professional measure surveyors. To understand the broader image there will besides be interviews with members of the general populace who late became householders ( of freshly constructed edifices ) . Attention will be given to whether or non the services of a measure surveyor was utilized and if non, why?
The research will be limited to the residential building industry. The focal point will be on services of professional measure surveyors and non that of the contractor ‘s measure surveyor. Interviews with members of the general populace will be limited to those who were late involved with the building of a residential edifice. Furthermore, for the intent of this survey, these persons will except belongings developers.
The research worker assumed that all informations collected are accurate and all interviews conducted were answered truthfully.
THE QUANTITY SURVEYING PROFESSION
In this chapter all the literature on the related subject collected by the research worker will be reviewed. This reappraisal will include literature on the history of the measure surveyor, the contractor ‘s measure surveyor, competences of a professional measure surveyor, fees of the professional measure surveyor, gauging and cost advice every bit good as the usage of a measure of measures. The nucleus focal point nevertheless will be to sketch the specific maps of the professional measure surveyor.
2.2 History of the measure surveyor
Harmonizing to the Association of South African Quantity Surveyors ( 2010 ) , the measure appraising profession started with the bend of the 19th century. The first recorded usage of the term Quantity surveyor was in 1859. Before so the footings “ measurer ” , “ Custom surveyor ” or “ surveyor ” were used.
At that clip it was usage for the “ surveyor ” to work for the maestro builders, mensurating the completed work and frequently subjecting biased concluding histories to the edifice proprietors. As a consequence of this behaviour it became the norm for edifice proprietors to come in into a contract and invite stamps before any work commenced. Harmonizing to Bowles & A ; Le Roux ( 1992:4 ) , this gave rise to competition and builders tendering realized that they were passing an huge sum of clip and attempt measurement and ciphering to get at a stamp figure. In add-on there was the added danger that the builders interpreted the designer ‘s drawings otherwise which would take to inaccurate pricing and consequence in the stamps non being calculated on an unvarying footing.
The builders realized that a “ surveyor ” could be employed to move as an indifferent individual to mensurate the measures on their behalf. This insured that the builders tendered on the same footing whilst sharing the cost for the surveyor. Building proprietors were afraid of unethical pattern between the builder ‘s and the surveyor and realized it would be to their personal advantage to name and counterbalance the measure surveyor. This is how the independent professional measure surveyor gained adviser position.
In South Africa the rubric “ measure surveyor ” is reserved under the Quantity Surveyors Act of 1970 for the sole usage by those who had acquired the obligatory makings and experience stipulated under the Act. Furthermore, those individuals must register with the South African Council for Quantity Surveyors before they can move as advisers to the general populace ( ASAQS, 2010 )
2.3 Contractor ‘s measure surveyor
The chief difference between a professional measure surveyor and a contractor ‘s measure surveyor is that the latter is employed by the building company and non by the client. Dent ( 1970:7 ) provinces that a contractor who undertakes large undertakings will necessitate a measure appraising staff. The contractor ‘s surveyor will stand for the contractor and the contractor ‘s involvement will be the chief precedence.
Harmonizing to Cornick and Osbon ( 1994:108 ) , the contractor ‘s measure surveyor spends relatively the same sum of clip on cost planning, feasibleness surveies and stamp assessment as the professional measure surveyor and significantly more on post-contract services but significantly less on fixing stamp certification. Undertaking cost control is one map that requires equal efficiency by both surveyors, the contractor ‘s measure surveyor on behalf of the contractor and the professional measure surveyor on behalf of the client.
Cornick and Osbon ( 1994:109 ) identified seven chief maps for the contractor ‘s measure surveyor viz. :
Evaluation of work completed for payment from client and payment to subcontractor.
Determination of alteration due to fluctuation from client or interior decorator.
Subcontractor histories to hold stamp and existent costs.
Fiscal coverage for quarterly history prognosiss.
Cost accounting for works and stuff usage by company.
Cost accounting for labor usage by the company.
Client ‘s outlooks of undertaking cost control will increase as the clients and their cost advisors become more complex. The clients will be anticipating the cost of their edifices to be reduced to fit their budget. Therefore contractor ‘s measure surveyor must endeavor to bettering their cost controlling and accounting capablenesss for the building companies that they work for.
2.4 The professional measure surveyor
Harmonizing to Bowles & A ; Le Roux ( 1992:3 ) “ the measure surveyor is a professional adviser appointed by the client who wishes to put in belongings development. ” It is the measure surveyor ‘s duty to rede the client, designer and applied scientist on all fiscal and contractual affairs from the pre-tender phase right through to the completion of the undertaking.
For the measure surveyor to carry through this function he must develop a comprehensive apprehension of the assorted building methods and have a crystalline apprehension of the different signifiers of contract and sub-contract understandings available in the building industry. The measure surveyor must be capable of reding on the cost of alternate building methods and costs of different stuffs. An analytical attack must be adopted in happening good solutions in the involvement of the client.
The Guide for Quantity Surveying Appointments ( 2006 ) states that a professional measure surveyor will pull on extended cost information obtained from client databases and experience from other undertakings for effectual budget scene. “ It is the measure surveyor ‘s on-going execution of fiscal subject in the countries of budget scene, alternate design option costing, hard currency flow anticipations, concluding cost prediction, direction of fluctuations including possible countries of difference and timeous concluding history colony, etc. that allows the maximal value for money demand to be achieved. ”
2.4.1 Standard measure surveying services
Harmonizing to A Guide for Quantity Surveying Appointments ( 2006 ) the criterion services that can be provided by a professional measure surveyor are:
Fiscal viability surveies and the initial budget planning prior to the elaborate design to set up whether the undertaking is executable in footings of the client ‘s fiscal budget ;
Preliminary cost surveies and comparing alternate designs and stuffs in footings of operating and care costs ;
Monitoring the design as it evolves to guarantee it stays within client ‘s budget ;
Fixing stamp certification for pricing by contractors and reding on contractual agreements ;
Measuring the submitted stamps and describing on the suitableness thereof ;
Negociating the contract amounts with the single contractors ;
Fixing hard currency flow anticipations ;
Fixing cost studies at regular intervals ;
Valuing building work in advancement ;
Fixing the concluding history therefore finding the concluding cost ;
Colony of the concluding costs with the contractor and sub-contractors.
Additional specializer services that many measure surveyors are experienced in supplying are:
Acting as undertaking director ;
Acting as rule agent ;
Consulting on belongings development ;
Evaluation of edifices for insurance intents etc. ;
Acting as an adept informant ;
Reding on the colony of differences through mediation and arbitration.
Facilitating with fast path building undertakings ;
Supplying services for undertakings in technology, excavation and petro-chemical industries.
It is recommended to use the measure surveyor ‘s full services as a professional adviser instead than in a technical/measurement function in order to use the measure surveyor ‘s expertness to the best advantage.
2.4.2 Competences of the professional measure surveyor
Competences can be defined as the ability a individual ‘s should hold in a given occupational country topic to external and internal factors like organisation size, type, and age ( Barret, 1992 ) . ( Holmes & A ; Joyce, 1993 ) defined competency as “ a description of an action, a manner of behaviour or result that a individual should be able to show, or the ability to reassign accomplishments and cognition to new state of affairss within the occupational country. ”
In the building industry the measure surveyor can be seen as the economic expert and cost comptroller, whose services facilitate the client to obtain the maximal value for the client ‘s investing. There are three facets which reflect value for a client in the building industry, viz. cost, clip and measure. Measure surveyors add value to the building undertaking public presentation by utilizing the appropriate competences. It is hence of import for an appraisal of the measure surveyors competences in order to foreground the go oning relevancy of their services in the building industry ( Nkado & A ; Meyer, 2001:483 ) .
The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors ( RICS ) set out the competences required by professional measure surveyors in three classs, viz. basic – , core – and optional competences. Table 1 below nowadayss the competences in three classs. Under the construction of the RICS the basic competences are present in all building professions, the nucleus competences chiefly for measure surveyors and the optional competences are required for specialisation in a specific field.
Table 1: Competences set out by the RICS ( Nkado & A ; Meyer, 2001:484 ) .
A Study conducted by Nkado and Meyer ( 2001:484 ) identified 23 defined competences which apply to measure surveyors in South Africa. A questionnaire was sent to randomly selected members of the ASAQS of a different demographic background. The questionnaire listed the 23 competences in alphabetical order.
The respondents were asked to rate the importance of the competences for a calling as a professional measure surveyor in South Africa at present, the importance in the hereafter and the degree of grounds of each competence in the measure appraising profession. Rating worked on a graduated table of 1 to 5 with 1 being ‘not of import ‘ and 5 being ‘very of import ‘ . The research workers ensured the respondents namelessness to achieve an honest response.
Table 2: Competences evaluations ( Nkado & A ; Meyer, 2001:487 ) .
Table 2 shows the evaluations which have been converted to per centums for effectual reading. It is interesting to observe that three of the traditional nucleus competences are rated in the top five competences required by measure surveyors in South Africa at present, the three being procurance and fiscal direction, economic sciences of building and building contract pattern. The consequences showed that direction orientated competences were rated of higher importance for future services while the highest importance for current services were technically orientated.
The five most of import competences required by measure surveyors in South Africa at present are:
Computer literacy and information engineering ;
Procurement and fiscal direction ;
Economicss of building ;
Construction contract pattern ;
The five most of import competences required by measure surveyors in South Africa in the hereafter are:
Computer literacy and information engineering ;
Procurement and fiscal direction ;
Economicss of building ;
Project direction ;
Competences utilized by measure surveyors with greatest efficiency in South Africa are:
Procurement and fiscal direction ;
Professional pattern ;
Construction contract pattern ;
Economicss of building.
It is apparent that direction orientated competences will turn in importance and will replace the traditional technically oriented competences as the nucleus competences of the measure surveyor ( Nkado & A ; Meyer,2001:490 ) .
2.4.3 Professional measure surveying fees
The fees charged by professional measure surveyors are proportionate with the work done for the client and harmonizing to A Guide for Quantity Surveying Appointments 2006 there are 5 options available:
A clip charge ;
A per centum fee based on a duty recommended by The South African Council for the Quantity Surveying Profession ( see Table 3 ) ;
An in agreement per centum of the contract value ;
A lump-sum fee ;
Any other fee arranged between the measure surveyor and the client.
184.108.40.206 Time Charges
The following recommended hourly clip charges for the private sector were approved by The South African Council for the Quantity Surveying Profession with consequence from 1 January 2010 ( SACQSP, 2010 ) . ( All rates are sole of VAT. )
Not transcending 5 old ages experience R 700-00
Exceeding 5 old ages and non transcending 10 old ages experience R 1 250-00
Exceeding 10 old ages experience R 1 750-00
Specialist work R 2 190-00
220.127.116.11 Percentage fees
By utilizing table 3 a basic fee will be determined and multiplied by the appropriate per centum ( Table 4, 5 & A ; 6 ) . The basic fee shall be calculated on the value for fee intents ( see table 3 ) .
Table 3: Basic fee ( SACQSP, 2010 )
Table 4: Appropriate per centums for edifice work ( SACQSP, 2010 )
Table 5: Appropriate per centums for technology work ( SACQSP, 2010 )
Table 6. Appropriate per centums for direction services ( SACQSP, 2010 )
Once the primary charge ( table 3 ) is established, the sum is multiplied by the appropriate per centum. In add-on to this there will be a fringy rate which would be added to the primary charge. The gross sum will be collectible to the measure surveyor as the professional fees.
2.5 Estimating and cost advice
Aibinu and Pasco ( 2008:1258 ) provinces: “ Pre-tender cost appraisal ( or early phase cost appraisal ) is the prediction of the cost of a undertaking during the planning and design phase. ”
Research done by Trost and Oberlender ( 2003 ) identified 11 factors that play a function in the preciseness of estimations of which the 5 most of import are:
Process design ;
Estimator squad experience and cost information ;
Time spent on readying of estimation ;
Site demands ;
The current labor and command clime.
Harmonizing to Bennett, Morrison and Stevens ( 1981 ) estimating is the chief map of cost planning services provided by the measure surveyor. They conclude that cost planning is unsuccessful without nice estimating. Morrison ( 1984:57 ) provinces that measure surveyors have developed different methods for gauging to cover with the big assortment of undertakings and designs. These different methods differ in item with some estimations being really thorough, for case a priced measure of measures. Other may be really simple and merely imply a simple ball amount estimation. All other factors being equal, the estimation ‘s truth will increase as the item and clip spent in fixing the estimation additions.
2.5.1 Clients brief
The client, designer ( design squad ) and the measure surveyor are the most of import members in the in the undertaking briefing procedure. Harmonizing to research done ( Bowen, Pearl, Nkado & A ; Edwards, n.d. ) it is critical to hold an efficient client brief if the client is to make his aims with respect to the clip, cost and quality of the undertaking.
Insufficient briefing of the design squad by the client can take to major defeat and sadness for the client. The brief process is the procedure where the client explains and enchantments out the aims and demands of a undertaking ( Bowen et al. , n.d. ) . Bowen ( 1993 ) states that: “ The intent of this phase is for the clients to pass on to the design squad and specializer advisers their demands and aims in originating the undertaking. ”
For the client to be satisfied, the design of the edifice must carry through the client ‘s demands with respects to the proficient facets and quality criterions. In add-on to this the undertaking must be completed within the budget and on clip ( Seymour & A ; Louw, 1990 ) . In order to accomplish this, a elaborate and complete client brief is necessary to extinguish as many uncertainnesss as possible.
2.5.2 Feasibility surveies
After the briefing procedure, the measure surveyor will make a feasibleness survey. The result of the feasibleness survey helps the client to make up one’s mind whether to travel in front with the undertaking. A feasibleness survey is conducted to determine whether a undertaking thought is economically feasible ( Hofstrand & A ; Clause, n.d. ) . It is the measure surveyors duty to do recommendations to the client on the viability of the undertaking and give professional advice on any options.
The feasibleness survey involves economical and proficient probes that allow the client to make up one’s mind whether to continue with the undertaking ( Association of South African Quantity Surveyors, 2010 ) . Harmonizing to Hofstrand & A ; Clause ( n.d. ) a feasibleness survey:
Identifies grounds non to continue.
Indicate new chances.
Gives quality information for better determination devising.
Aid in geting support from Bankss and other investors.
2.6 Use of measure of measures
After the measure surveyor completes the elemental estimation the client will make up one’s mind whether the undertaking will travel in front or non. This determination is mostly based on whether the estimation is within the client ‘s budget or non. If the estimation is within budget the client should teach the designer to fix elaborate on the job drawings for building. The measure surveyor can get down with the readying of the measure of measures one time he has received these drawings ( Bowles & A ; Le Roux, 1992 ) .
Davis, Love and Baccarini ( 2009:99 ) provinces that the measure of measures has 2 chief utilizations and these can be categorized under pre-contract and post-contract phase. In the pre-contract phase the measure of measures aid contractors to fix their stamps. In the post-contract phase the measure of measures assists the measure surveyor and the contractor in the rating of the work in advancement and work completed for payment intents.
The measure of measures is chiefly used for tendering intents. It enables contractors to fix stamps utilizing the same information which will take to more accurate stamp amounts. The measure of measures allow for a common footing on which the stamps can be compared. This brings about a competitory market ( Kodikara, Thorpe & A ; McCaffer, 1993:261 ) .
Harmonizing to Bowles and Le Roux ( 1992 ) the measure of measures describes the nature of the edifice. It is a papers which lists all the points that need to be completed for the building of the edifice. These points required for the completion of the edifice is measured from drawings and specifications received from the designer and applied scientists. The entire cost for the undertaking will be the amount of all the single points added together. When these points are priced there must be an allowance for the executing of each point every bit good as a realistic net income border.
The information in the measure of measures can be classified into three cardinal classs viz. ; preliminaries, preambles and measures. The preliminaries of a contract entail all demands of the undertaking which do non hold a direct impact on the building works.
The preliminaries of a contract may include wellness and safety demands, entree to and from site, adjustment for work force, insurances required etc. Preambles define the criterions of craft and stuffs to be used. The measures contain the mensural points needed to finish the plants and comprises of the description, units and measures ( Kodikara et al. , 1993:261 ) .
The measure of measures, elaborate building drawings, technology drawings and specifications will be issued to constructing contractors. These paperss form portion of the stamp certification. The stamp paperss enable contractors to subject a competitory stamp for a undertaking and help them in finding an accurate monetary value for the completion of the edifice. A practical clip bound is set for the contractors to monetary value the measure. All stamps should be handed in before the specified shutting day of the month.
Harmonizing to Davis et Al. ( 2009:103 ) , the measure of measures has assorted advantages to the parties involved in a undertaking:
Database – It provides a cost database for future gauging
Fee computation – It provides a conclusive footing for the computation of professional fees
Asset direction – It provide informations for plus direction of finished edifice, insurance, care agendas etc.
Taxation – Provide footing for precise readying of depreciation agendas as portion of the plus direction program.
Accurate advancement payments – It becomes a footing from which the meantime payments can be evaluated. This insures work is done at a sensible monetary value and gives the contractor and client peace of head that the contractor is non paid excessively much or excessively small for work completed.
Pricing of contract instructions – It provides a footing for the rating of fluctuations to the undertaking.
Risk direction – Monetary values from the contractor in the measure of measures can be compared with current market related monetary values.
Harmonizing to Davis et Al. ( 2009:103 ) , the major disadvantages of the measure of measures are that the readying is clip devouring and it tends to increase cost.