SecurityTerminologyDefine the following terms:1. Authentication – ability to identify who it isa. ACL – (access control list) is associated w/ a given resource.
Describes groups, users, machines and their permissions associated with that particular resource. i. Token- one time only password keyb. CA- certificate of authority- creates certificates -system or entity trusted to generate and distribute digital certificates. Can be privately used or from a 3rd party e-commerce site.
Verifies identity of user. Authentication method. c. RA- Registration Authority-issues certificates-RA verifies credentials supplied by an agent and then sends the CA an okay to issue a certificate. d.
PKI- Public Key Infrastructure- Policies and behaviors that surround the deployment and management of key pairs. How you issue two keys at one time. e. Kerberos- Authentication method used by Microsoft.
Uses 3 different protocols, listed belowi. TGT- Ticket granting ticket. Allows you to request resources on the network from servers. ii.
TGS- Ticket granting server. Accesses a particular network server for tickets. iii. AS- Authentication Server.
Equivalent to a morning check-in at security desk of a hotel. Checks the identity of a server. f. CHAP- Challenge handshake authentication protocol. Was designed to replace the PAP. Communication between server and client proving identity.
i. MS-CHAP- Microsoft CHAPg. PAP- Password authentication protocolh. X. 509- digital certificate that uniquely identifies a party. Standard structure of a certificate.
i. KDC- Key distribution centerj. Biometrics- Authentications based on human anatomy. k. Multifactor- Authentication based on 2 valid authentication methods.
l. Mutual Authentication- Client establishes identity to server. Server provides authentication information to client to ensure that illicit servers cannot masquerade as genuine servers. Both parties have to authenticate. 2.
Encryption- hiding data using algorithms. protection, method of code, algorithms, formulas a. Asymmetric keys- pair of key values one public and one private. b. Symmetric keys- single encryption key generated.
c. DES- Data Encryption standard developed by government. d. Diffie-hellman- encryption algorithm named after its two creators.
e. IPSec- used for encryption of TCP/IP traffic. Method of encrypting any IP transmissions. f. PGP- Pretty good privacy- mainly used in email less secure than the PKI.
g. RSA- Rivest-Shamir-Adleman- encryption algorithm named after its 3 creators. Using two pair keys. h.
SSL- Secure Socket Loader- used mainly on web servers to transmit securely via HTTPS://3. Network protocols and organizationa. DMZ- Demilitarized zone- Zone used for public access. Used with FTP, web servers and DNS servers. b.
IDS- Intrusion Detection System- 2 types: Active and Passivec. NAT- Network Address Translation- Appends to your logical port. Protects internal hosts. Used with proxy servers. Translates internal IP to Real IP.
Uses unique port table. There is 65,000 portsd. Tunneling- ability to go to 1 point to another as though you are a single proprietary line. 1 logical circuit. Used with Virtual Private Networks. e.
PPP- Point to point protocol. f. PPTP- Microsoft product. Enhancement to point to point protocol. Called point to point tunneling protocol. Allows Point to point to be used in a tunnel.
i. MPPE- MS point to point encryption. Encrypts within a tunnel. g.
L2TP- Layer 2 tunneling protocol Sisco’s version of MPPE. Works with IPSEC. Works to encrypt with Ipsec. h. RADIUS- Remote access dial in user service- usually used with Unix or LENIX systems.
An authentication system. i. RAS- Remote Access Server- provides users to dial in from anywhere. Allows you to connect with different location computers with dial up. j.
RPC- Remote procedure calls. Links to another remote program. Ability to access remoter computer and access a program and execute it on your own computer. Loads program onto your computer from another computer. 4. Attacks and detectiona.
Sniffing – Looking at network traffic and deciphering it for propaganda uses. b. Stateful Inspection- firewall protection. Inspects entire packet. Looks at words in the packet. Used with proxy servers.
c. Spoofing- Impersonating a computer or network. d. Trojan horse- program that appears to be working fine and replicates good programs.
Performs malicious acts to your PC. e. Zombie (bot)- a logic bomb. A virus waiting for certain variables to be met before activating. Program does same thing.
f. DOS- Denial of Service- example- flood of pings. 1 person denied internet access. g.
DDOS- Distributed denial of service- Across the board denial of service. When an entire network goes down. h. Backdoor- allows you to enter a certain area with different credentials. Easy way out.
Creating another way to enter a system if your system gets hacked. i. Man in the middle- MITM- used to gather information between hosts. j.
Brute Force attack- Guessing passwords. Trial and error. k. Hijacking- take over someone’s computer. Aka-replayl. Social engineering- Used by individual.
Examples: looking over persons shoulder for password, dumpster diving, impersonating on phone, phishing through fake