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    Renaissance- New Monarchs

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    institutions that originate in High Middle Ages
    Sheriffs, inquests, juries, circuit judges, professional bureaucracies, and representative assemblies.
    What was new about the monarchs?
    -invested kingship with a strong sense of royal autority and national purpose
    -believed monarchy was one thing that linked all classes and peoples within definite territorial boundaries.
    What was not so new about the monarchs?
    -reasserted long-standing ideas and practices of strong monarchs in the Middle Ages (Justinian Code)
    Things all these monarchs tended to do
    -rely on middle-class officials (reduction of nobility)
    -built armies with tax revenues (crush feudal anarchy)
    -reduction of violence (people willing to pay taxes for safety)
    France after 100 years war
    drastically depopulated, commercially ruined, agriculturally weak
    French #1:Charles VII
    -revived monarchy in france
    -unlikely ruler to do so
    Charles VII: political achievements
    -reconciled the Burgundians and Armagnacs (ended 30 year civil war)
    -1453: expelled English from French Soil (except calais)
    -reorganized royal council (^ middle class power)
    -created first permanent army
    Charles VII: Economic achievements
    -strengthened finances with taxes such as “Gabelle (salt) and Taille (land)
    –>the crowns chief source of income
    Charles VII: Social achievements
    Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges: superior powers over papacy
    French #2: Louis XI
    -“Spider King” because of treacherous character
    -very much a Renaissance Prince
    Louis XI: Political Achievements
    -taxation –> Army
    -Gained territories (through well timed invasions)
    Louis XI: economic Achievements
    -promoted new industries (silk, weaving)
    -entered into commercial treaties with England, purtugal, Hanseatic League
    -severe taxation
    French #3: Louis XII achievements
    -added territory through marriage
    -Concordat of Bologna: undid some stuff from Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (/ papacy) but still retained other stuff. (yeah!)
    England #0: Henry IV
    -everything sort of sucked for this guy’s rule
    -the authority of the monarchy sank lower than it had been in centuries
    3 English Rulers
    #1 Edward IV,
    #2 Richard III,
    #3 Henry VII:
    England: political achievements of 3 monarchs
    -defeated lancastrian forces (ending war of the roses)
    -royal council (governed at national level)
    -Court of Star CHAMBAH! yo! a court using scary tactics that went against common law. reduced noble trouble-making
    -justices of the peace: sort of like police officers
    England: economic achievements of 3 monarchs
    -conducted foreign policy, avoiding expensive wars (didn’t depend on Parliament for money)
    -encouraged cloth industry
    England: Social achievements of 3 monarchs
    -worked to restore royal prestige –>crush power of nobility
    -won support of influential upper middle class (gov policy surrounded interest of that class)

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