The cognitive position is a theory that attempts to explicate human behavior by understanding our thought procedure. Our information procedure is compared to that of a computing machine: Inputting. storing and having informations.
One of the most celebrated cognitive psychologists was a scientist called Jean Piaget ( 1896-1980 ) . Harmonizing to Piaget. understanding comes in the signifier of ‘schemas’ ( Fritscher. 2011 ) . Schemas are cognitive constructions that represent certain facets of the universe ( pre-conceived thoughts for things ) .
Schemas develop through at least two procedures: assimilation and adjustment. Assimilation is merely adding new information into an bing scheme but maintaining the general thought the same. Adjustment is the procedure in which we change our bing scheme. The individual will seek to suit the old scheme round the new information but in the terminal they merely suit a new scheme ( Atherton. 2011 ) . Through detecting and listening to his ain kids.
Piaget proposed that their thought does non develop swimmingly ; alternatively they go through phases. “Each phase is characterized by an overall construction in footings of which the chief behavior forms can be explained” ( Gross. page 739 ) . Stage one is called ‘The sensorimotor stage’ ( 0 – 2 old ages old ) . At this age. kids use centripetal and motor information to do scheme.
They becomes self cognizant and they see object permanency ( McLeod. 2010 ) . Phase two is called ‘The pre-operational stage’ ( 2 – 7 old ages old ) . The kid is now get downing to speak and can interact with others utilizing address and other signifiers of communicating. They start organizing their ain point of views from what they know but they are egoistic and don’t adapt good to others point of views.
Piaget’s most celebrated experiment ‘the three mountains task’ ( 1940’s ) demonstrated such egoism. The experiment consisted of a kid sitting at a tabular array in forepart of three different mountains. One had snow on top. one had a hut at the top and the other had a ruddy cross on the top. The kid was allowed to travel around the theoretical accounts and take a side to sit. Piaget would so put a doll at assorted topographic points around the tabular array.
The kid is so shown 10 exposure of different point of views and has to indicate out the exposure that indicated the dolls point of position. Egoism is proven when the kid picks out the exposure that shows their point of position. non the dolls. The consequence was that a four twelvemonth old would ever take the incorrect exposure whereas a seven twelvemonth old was able to believe more logically and be able to take the right point of view. Piaget came to the decision that this was because Children in the preoperational phase are able to concentrate on merely one facet or dimension of a job. If a kid is playing with four ruddy and four blue edifice blocks and you ask them to split them every bit.
they will automatically group all the ruddy 1s together and all the bluish 1s together. Stage three is called ‘The concrete operational stage’ ( 7 – 11 old ages old ) . At this phase the kid is now get downing to believe logically about objects and events. Intuition is replaced by confident thoughts but the kid can merely work with ‘concrete’ thoughts instead than conjectural 1s.
Piaget believed this was a major turning point in a child’s acquisition development. Stage four is called ‘The formal operational stage’ ( 11+ old ages old ) . This is the concluding cognitive phase. When a kid hits this age.
they can get down utilizing abstract thoughts and are confident plenty to inquire inquiries and research the unknown. They use a more systematic attack and seek all possibilities to happen replies and derive the ability of preservation. Piaget conducted an experiment called ‘the pendulum task’ . This experiment involved a length of twine and a set of weights.
The kid had to see three factors: the length of the twine. the weightiness of the weight and the strength of push. The undertaking was to work out which factor was most of import in finding the velocity of swing of the pendulum. Participants can change the length of the pendulum twine. and vary the weight. The consequences were kids in the formal operational phase tested one variable at a clip to see its consequence.
However. younger kids tend to seek out these fluctuations indiscriminately. Experts have argued “…the distinct ages and phases organizing the footing of Piaget’s theory are really rather bleary and intermix into each other” ( Donaldson. page 57 ) . In Donaldson’s book. ‘Children’s Minds’ .
she suggests that Piaget may hold underestimated children’s linguistic communication and believing abilities by non giving adequate consideration to the contexts he provided for kids when carry oning his research ( Castella. 2011 ) . Although Piaget’s theory gives us a brief apprehension of how children’s acquisition develops. non all kids are taught the same manner nor do they larn at the same gait. Each of the four phases have been criticised by experts.
For case on rating of the sensorimotor phase ; Bower ( 1982 ) found that kids display object permanency at a much younger age than Piaget suggested. We can hold or differ with Piaget’s theory but one thing is certain. we will ever conceive of the phases whilst detecting our kids grow “… it is surely true that. whether we agree with the theory or non. Piaget has changed the manner we think about children’s thinking” ( Sternberg.
page 761 ) . The behavioral position is an premise that our individuality is shaped by our milieus. The people we know. the schools we attend and even how much money we have in our bank histories can do us who we are. There are two theories involved: classical conditioning ( Ivan Pavlov ) and operant conditioning ( B.
F. Skinner ) . Classical conditioning is a theory that involves larning a new behavior via the procedure of association ( McLeod. 2008 ) . For illustration when a individual is ill after eating a certain nutrient.
they tend to avoid eating it once more for a piece as they associate that nutrient with being sick. Operate conditioning is when we use wagess and/or penalty to acquire the coveted response. “To put it really merely. behavior that is followed by pleasant effects tends to be repeated and therefore learned. Behaviour that is followed by unpleasant effects tends non to be repeated and therefore non learned” ( Alberto & A ; Troutman. page 12 ) .
For illustration when a kid misbehaves in a supermarket. if you ignore bad behavior. you are demoing the kid that it is non tolerated. If the kid shows superb behavior.
you may reenforce it by giving Sweets or positive congratulations. B. F. Skinner believed that the best manner to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its effects ( B.
F. Skinner. 1948. 168-172 ) . He studied operant conditioning by carry oning experiments utilizing animate beings which he placed in a ‘skinner box’ ( McLeod. 2007 ) .
Skinner showed how positive support worked by puting a hungry rat in his ‘Skinner box’ . The box contained a lever in the side and as the rat moved about the box. it would by chance strike hard the lever. When the lever gets knocked. a nutrient pellet would instantly drop into a container next to the lever. The rats rapidly learned to travel directly to the lever.
The effect of having nutrient if they pressed the lever ensured that they would reiterate the action once more and once more. On the other manus Skinner besides showed how negative support worked by puting a rat in his ‘Skinner box’ and so subjecting it to an unpleasant electric current. As the rat moved about the box it would by chance strike hard the lever. Equally shortly as it did so. the electric current would be switched away. The rats rapidly learned to travel directly to the lever after a few times of being put in the box.
The effect of get awaying the electric current ensured that they would reiterate the action once more and once more. Looking at all the information on both classical and operate conditioning. it is clear to see that our environment has a major influence on human behavior. Operant conditioning is still widely used and is frequently applied in schoolrooms and the workplace ( Tuckman.
2003-2009 ) . It can look in many signifiers:* Consumable ( e. g. Henry sweets )* Social ( e. g.
Praise )* Activity ( e. g. Time utilizing computing machines. excess clip for interruption ) * Exchangeable ( e. g. Spines for good behavior.
virtues for good work ) Psychologists who pattern the operant conditioning theory believe that larning merely occurs through support. This is one of the biggest unfavorable judgment from experts as they believe that it is wrong. Another unfavorable judgment is that operant conditioning is inhumane as it takes off a person’s free will. Carl Rogers ( 1902-1987 ) .
a psychologist who patterns the humanistic position. believed in unconditioned positive respect ( psychandsensibility. wordpress. com ) . Rogers debated that Skinner’s universe is one without freedom or significance. Another ruin in Skinners theory is that kids with autism may necessitate an intense behavioral programme that includes a lower limit of 20 hours a hebdomad for one person.
This would non be possible in most public schools ( Forti. Sollner 1999 ) There is no uncertainty that operate conditioning is a great pillar of learning kids incorrect from right. but portion of being human is larning from your errors. Mentions:* Alberto.
P. A. . & A ; Troutman.
A. C. ( 2006 ) . Applied behaviour analysis for instructors ( 7th edition ) . Pearson. page 12 * Atherton.
J S. ( 2011 ) . Learning and Teaching ; Piaget’s developmental theory [ Online ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www. learningandteaching.
info/learning/piaget. htm [ 4/10/2012 ] * Castella. Claire. ( 2011 ) . Jean Piaget’s Theory on Child Language Development [ Online ] ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
ehow. com/about_6587239_jean-theory-child-language-development. hypertext markup language