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    Photographic Properties

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    Question Answer
    Photographic properties effect Visbility, Density, Contrast
    Geometric Properties Effect Sharpness, Recorded Detail, Distortion
    Radiographic Density The overall blackness produced on the image after processing
    Controlling factor of Density mAs
    Influencing factors of Density kVp, Distance, Grids, Film-screen speed, collimation, anatomic part, anode heel effect, filtration, processing
    mAs= Quantity
    kVp= Quality
    The Law of Reciprocity mA x s = mAs
    (200mA @ .10s = 20 mAs)
    The minimal change needed to correct density errors is determined by multiplying or dividing mAs by 2.
    When greater change in mAs is needed.. multiply or divide by 4, 8, etc
    ___ kVp ___ Quantity of radiation striking the IR and ___ density. Increases, increases, increases
    Increasing kVp by 15% will ___ density (math) Double;
    __kVp x 1.15 = end kVp
    Decreasing kVp by 15% will ___ density (math) Cut in half;
    ___kVp x .85 = end kVp
    To MAINTAIN density when kVp increases by 15% Divide mAs by 2
    kVp x 1.15
    To MAINTAIN density when kVp decreases by 15% Multiply mAs by 2
    kVp x .85
    To reduce patient dose ___ kVp ___ mAs Increase; decrease
    As SID increase, the xray bream intensity is spread over a larger area, this decreases the overall intensity of the xray beam raching the IR
    Inverse Square Law I1/I2=SID2(squared)/SID1(squared)
    Density Maintenance Formula mAs1/mAs2=SID1(squared)/SID2(squared)
    Increasing SID needs ___ mAs More
    Grids Grids absorb the scatter radiation exiting the patient; Limiting the amount striking the IR and improves image quality; they also absorb some of the transmitted radiaion exiting the pt and reduce the amount of density produced on the radiograph
    Grids are ___ for pt ___ for film Bad; good
    The more efficient a grid absorbs scatter, the greater the increase in mAs is required
    Grid Conversion Factor mAs1/mAs2=GCF1/GCF2
    Grid Conversion FactorS No grid 1
    5:1 2
    6:1 3
    8:1 4
    12:1 5
    16:1 6
    Film Screen Speed The greater the speed the greater the density;
    When the speed of the system changes; mAs should be changed
    Film Screen Speed Formula mAs1/mAs2=RS2/RS1
    Anatomic Part Thickness of the anatomic part affects the amount of xray beam attenuation that occurs;
    thick-absorbs more (decreasing density)
    thin-absorbs less (increasing density)
    Anatomic Part Conversion For each 4-5cms of thickness, increase mAs x2
    The best for an anode heel effect is ____ SID and a ___ field size Short, Large
    Anode Heel Effect The intensity along the longitudial axis of the primpart xray beam varies; this variance is called AHE
    AHE is a decrease in the primary beam intensity on the anode side of the tube
    Tube Filtration Contributors These variations are so slight that they would have very little effect on density
    Compensating Filters Contributors Produce uniform densities;
    mAs must be increased to maintain overall density
    Film Processing Contributors Variability in temp, chemisty and transporting can adversely affect density
    Digital Imaging Changes in mAs kVp SID will alter the I of radiation reaching the IR;
    The relationship b/t mAs and density is not the same for DR;
    Quality of image is adversly affected;
    Techs use more exposure then needed;
    The data can be altered to correct error in
    Relationship to Density:
    mAs
    Direct
    Relationship to Density:
    kVp
    Direct
    Relationship to Density:
    SID
    Inverse to the square of the SID
    Relationship to Density:
    Grids
    Inverse
    Relationship to Density:
    Relative Speed
    Direct
    Relationship to Density:
    Collimation
    Indirect
    Relationship to Density:
    Bigger pt
    Inverse
    Relationship to Density:
    Generator output
    Direct

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