India is a developing country, according to the CIA’s The World Fact Book (2011), Many of the laborers are children who work in factories or in homes, where a large percentage of India’s exports are manufactured. India does have child labor laws and even ratified their constitution several times but, due to economic instability child labor practices are still accepted all over the country. Even though India has created laws and made ratifications to their constitution, thousands of children are still employed. In a recent survey, an estimated 6%, 199,791,382 children, are employed.(Central Intelligence Agency) The present review deals with the study of child labour before and after the National Child Labour Project Scheme In India also this paper majorly concentrates on the current status of the child labour and the thoughts of the people regarding this scheme.
Review of Literature
S. S. Tiwana, (1995), “Child Labour in India: An Appraisal”, N- 72, analysed the problem of child labour both at India and global levels. He made an effort to analyse the constitutional provisions and policy framework relating to child labour in India. He has also traced the history of child labour in India and examined various resolutions passed by International Labour Organisation (ILO). He also narrated the various legislative measures undertaken by the Government of India to curtail the problem of child labour. He also analysed the role of judiciary against the practice of child labour.
JayantiAlam, (1995), “Child Labour: Compulsory Schooling is the only Solution”, Mainstream, Vol.XXXIII, No. 16., depicted the pitiable position of child labour in India. He narrated that 82.82 million children between the age group 6-14 are not in schools because they are forced to work at home tendering cattle, taking a care of siblings, collecting firewood, water or even working in the fields or outside cottage industries, small eating houses, tea-stalls or as domestic worker in middle class houses. Quite often they are doomed to beg, pick rags, work as bonded labour or even as prostitutes. About 13 to 44 million or more belong to the latter category of unfortunates. He suggested that compulsory schooling is a proper solution of child labour in India.
A.R.M Ismail, (1995), “Child Labour in India”, Mainstream, Vol. XXXIII, No. 52, identified systematic destruction of rural life, menacing spread of urbanization, commercialization of education and drastic cut in the budgetary allocation towards various poverty alleviation schemes as the main factors behind the alarming spread of child labour in India. He also said that India has come to acquire hasty distinction of possessing the largest child labour force in the world, despite various measures undertaken by government and nongovernmental agencies to tackle the exploitation of children
Umesh Chandra Sahoo, (1996), “Child Labour Dimensions in India: An Appraisal”, New Delhi, analysed that invariably, backwardness and poverty are considered as the driving forces for the employment of children. Illiteracy, low social status, lack of schooling facilities is the reasons to reinforce and stimulate employment of children. It is no wonder then that the legislative measures have remained more or less ineffective, except perhaps in organized industries. He found that the “political will” is strongly biased in favour of the proprietary classes. So long as, the masses are inert and unorganized, the ruling coalition will try to gain at their expenses
T.N. Kitchlu, (1996), Exploited Child: Perspective, Deep and Deep Publication, New Delhi, established the fact that socio cultural factors have a decisive part to play in perpetuation of child labour. He suggested that this pernicious problem can be tackled through a concerted drive, aimed at awareness generation, public education, adult literacy etc.
K.N. Bhatt, (2000), “Eliminating Child Labour through Primary Education: The Indian Scenario”, Mainstream, XXXVIII, No. 49, analysed the role of primary education in eliminating child labour. He highlighted the socio-economic factors responsible for the existence of a large number of working children in the country. He tried to find out why India has utterly failed to fulfill our constitutional obligation to provide free and compulsory education to every child up to age of 14 years. He did an attempt to show how it affects the problem of child labour. He concluded that there is no alternative to free, compulsory and quality primary education to eliminate child labour. He ensured the right of each child to education without any further delay. In the end he gave concrete suggestions to combat the problem of child labour in India.
AshishGhosh and Helen R. Sekar, (2000), “Child Labour in Moradabad Home Based Industries in the wake of Legislation”, V.V. Giri, National Labour Institute, Noida, analysed the impact of legislation on the status of child labour in the home-based brassware industries in Moradabad specially Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986. They felt that child labour does exist despite the constitutional, legal and governmental commitments. They wanted that reasons responsible for child labour must be identified and impediments removed. They also suggested innovative and constructive ways to end this unfortunate practice in recognition of the emerging trends and compulsion with which child labour is associated.
Helen R. Sekar, (2002), Impact of Rehabilitation Programmes on Child Labour, Commonwealth, New Delhi, analysed the impact of various rehabilitation programmes initiated by the government and NGOs on child International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue labour. He examined the existing inputs in the policy framework and the programmes of action for dealing with the issue of child labour. He pointed out 30 that the establishment and running of the special schools is the major activity under the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) at the ground level. On the basis of field studies and secondary data, an attempt has been made to examine the effectiveness of the National Child Labour Project in this study.
JayantilalBhandari, (2002), “Child Labour, Challenges Ahead”, Yojna,Vol. 52, No. 1, observed that the child labour problem was an intense socioeconomic issue in India that required a long-term multi-pronged strategy to be carried out on a continuous basis. This strategy should include enforcement of child labour acts, strengthening of child labour, improvement of economic conditions of the child’s parents through various 31 poverty alleviation and employment generation programmes. He examined that various child labour elimination programmes and projects should also be strongly evaluated. A strong enforcement of the labour acts might be done to ensure legal actions against those who employed children for work, this evil required awareness and change of approach in all sections of the society. He suggested that both the government media and non government organizations had to unite to play their proper role in this holistic task, only then child labour problem could be solved effectively.
D. B. Mello, (2002), “Child Labour : Dimensions and Policy Options”, Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Vol. 45, No. 3. Author said that problem of child labour was embedded in the larger problem of India‟s backward capitalist economy. Poverty, misery and degradation derived millions of parents against their very inherent human inclinations to allow the exploitation of their own children. He made an attempt to understand the circumstances in which a technologically backward industrial capitalist enterprise, situated within the institutions and structures of underdeveloped capitalism, might change the incidence of employment and exploitation of child labour.
GopalBhargava, (2003), “Child Labour”, Volume I, Kalpaz Publications, Delhi, said that the economic exploitation of children has always been an area of concern in the world over. He highlighted initiatives that are yielding encouraging results in preventing child labour, as well as in rescuing and rehabilitation bounded children. He suggested ways to expand and accelerate these initiatives by linking them more directly with national programmes and international mechanics specifically designed to combat child labour.
Labour in India: Lessons Learnt from the Evaluation of NCLPs”, V.V. Giri National Labour Institute, Noida, analysed the impact of National Child Labour Projects by encompassing 70National Child Labour Project districts located in 15 different states of India. They presented in details the practices, gaps, challenges and impediments of the project. They also gave some recommendations to strengthen the programme and its implementation.
AshaBajpai, (2011), Child Rights in India: Law, Policy and Practice, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, made an attempt to integrate the law in the history and field practice. She examined the important legislation and judgments on the subject, along with the initiatives for legal reform, interventions 37 by some non-governmental organizations (NGO), and international legal trends. She also highlighted various relevant regional and international mechanism and international standards of behavior towards children. She examined the inadequacies in laws and procedures and looked at some examples and approaches of current NGO interventions and strategies in the field to enhance and protect the rights of the child. She also focused on some legal strategies and law reform recommendations to be carried at all levels from local and national, to regional and international
According to the survey conducted regarding the National Child labour Project Scheme, this scheme was a total failure and it is not even implemented properly was the thought of the majority of the people but according to the reports given by the government this scheme was a great success and it is properly implemented. Finally the present review concludes its work by stating that people knows their situation more properly as compared with the government it is because even the government appoints officers to take a survey but the survey that is made by the officers were completely fake and this statement was also given my the majority of the people who took part in this survey,