the flow of music through time
the organization of beats
a symbol for beats per measure
a series of pitches forming a unit (the tune)
a term describing high or low regions of pitch
the main recurring melody
the shape and direction of a melody
less significant notes decorating the melody
a logical grouping of melody notes; similar to the use of language
any two or more simultaneous pitches
tonality; hierarchichal system featuring a central harmony
the process of changing key
describe the sounds of major vs. minor harmonies
consonance: stable; pleasant
dissonance: clash; creates tension
describe the sounds of consonance vs. dissonance
the number and use of melodies
texture featuring one unaccompanied melody
texture featuring one melody with accompaniment
texture featuring two or more melodies simultaneously
term for successive entries of a single melody like a round.
a term for volume
italian term for an increase in volume
italiam term for a decrease in volume
term synonymous witht one quality or tone color
the plan of organization for a piece of music
repetition, variation, contrast
3 possible formal principles
category of a piece of music based on its instrumentation and form.
independent sections within a larger piece, usually with pauses in between
violin, viola, cello, bass
4 orchestral string instruments in order from highest to lowest
plucked or bow
2 ways sound is produced ona string instrument
percentage of the orchestra is taken up by the string section?
flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon
4 man orchestral woodwinds in order from highest to lowest.
inner construction of each woodwind instrument.
trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba
4 brass instruments in order from highest to lowest range.
describe how sound is produced in a brass instrument.
tuned and untuned
2 broad categories of percussion instruments.
soprano, alto, tenor, bass
4 voice types in order from highest to lowest range.
harpsichord, piano, and pipe organ
3 most commen keyboard instruments.
dates covering ancient greece and rome
vocal and greek dramas
2 most common uses of music in ancient greece
most common instrument of ancient greece?
influenced moral character
what was the most common greek belief about the power of music?
dates of the middles ages
what was the most popular genre during this time?( Middle Ages)
what was the most important type of church service?
what is the name and purpose of the special mass featuring the dies irae?
which abbess was the 12th C composer of liturgical dramas?
give the dates of the medieeval period/
during medieval period music changed from monophony to what texture?
what 11th C genre added a parallel line to a chant, forming the link between monophony and polyphony?
leonin and perotin
which 2 composers in the 12th C developed 4 part organum at the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris?
the term for a bass line based on a phrase of chant.
what 4 part polyphonic genre was based on cantus firmus?
leonin and perotin
which french composer was known for his motets?
fast dance in triple meter
date and definition of the renaissance.
which renaissance composer from the netherlands was known for his chansons and motets?
what genre is described as a french polyphonic song?
which italian composer was considered conservative during his lifetime, but is now considered the culmination of the renaissance?
what italian genre is a polyphonic piece for a small group of singers?
the term for the musical depiction of words.
which english composer was known for his madrigals?
what was the most common instrument of the renaissance?
give the dates of the baroque period.
doctrine of affections
what is the term for the idea that music should sound like the plot or text in use?
give the term for continous accompaniment by keyboard and low string instrument.
what genre was originally for church use, and resembles opera without theatrics?
what speech like section with minimal accompaniment uses much text to move the plot along?
what song like section with solo singer and accompaniment slows the plot of insight into a particular character?
what less frequent section features a large group of singers at climactic moments?
which german composer, whose partron became the kind of england, is known for oratorio and opera?
what is the term for a german lutheran hymn?
what is the term for a shorter oratorio used in the worship service?
what genre was meant to recreate greek drama, and is similar to musical theatre?
what is the italian term for the text for an opera?
which italian composer shows the transition from renaissance polyphony to baroque homophony?
who is the most well known english composer of opera during this period?
what is the term for a collection of stylized dance?
what genre featuring 3 instruments plus continuo usually has 4 movements?
which italian composer and violinist was the first to promote virtuosic playing?
what genre featuring 2 groups of contrasting sizes has 3 monvements? (fast-slow-fast)
which prolific italian composer and violinist was also a priest at an orphanage for girls?
what is the term for music that portrays extramusical ideas?
what genre w/ frequent imitation has 2 themes called the subject and countersubject?
what genre features mostly free style virtuosity?
which german composer/organist is considered the culmination of the baroque period?
dates of the classical period?
what is the term for music with no extramusical associations?
common form for first movements of symphonies, sonatas, and concertos?
name of the section that exposes the 2 contrasting themes?
what is the name of the section that works with 1 or both themes?
austrian compoer and keyboard prodigy father was well known violinist?
what genre for orchestra and solo instrument is more virtuosic than the baroque version?
what is it called when the 1st section of the 1st movement is played by the orchestra, then repeated with the soloist?
what is the term for the impressive, improvised solo section in the 1st movement?
what common form for final movements features a main theme alternating with contrasting themes?
austrian composer for prince esterhazy is known as the father of several genres, and also taught beethoven?
italian term for the serious, dramatic, style of opera
italian term for the light, comic style of opera
genre for small instrumental groups was orginally played in small rooms for wealthy homes?
most significant chamber group featuring 2 violins, 1 viola, and 1 cello?
minuet and trio
common 2nd or 3rd movement form is based on a stylized dance in triple meter?
what form features a melody placed in many different setting or costumes?
solo genre with 3-4 movements rivaled the symphony in importante?
german composer struggled with composing and eventually became deaf?
genre for orchestra usually with 4 movements was the more important genre?
form, sometimes replacing the minuet and trio, means “joke”