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    Music Appreciation: Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque

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    Church- Catholic
    -Most of the important musicians were priests and worked for the church
    -Women were not allowed to sing in the Church
    -Church frowned upon the use of instruments
    Fugue
    A polyphonic composition based on one main theme called a subject.
    Counter Subject
    when the subject in one voice is constantly accompanied in another voice by a different melodic idea
    Episodes
    between the presentations of the subject the transitional sections
    Stretto
    Where music is imitated before it is completed
    Pedal Point
    where a single tone usually in the bass is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it
    Oratorio
    Large scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists and orchestra, usually set to a narrative text but without acting, scenery or costumes; often based on biblical stories
    Dark Ages
    Dark Ages (historiography), the concept of a period of intellectual darkness and economic regression that occurred in Europe following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
    Renaissance
    the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Europe
    Hildegard
    -composed the o successors chant
    Bach
    -1685-1750
    -born in Esanach Germany
    -Director of music at St.Thomas Church
    -Lutheran
    -Married twice and had twenty children
    -Improvisor
    -Created all kinds of music except opera
    Handle
    1685-1759
    -Born in halle Germany
    -not from a music family, his father wanted him to study law
    -Handle became England’s most important composer and a favorite of queen Anne
    -buried in Westminster Abbey
    -oratorios
    Baroque
    1600-1750
    -handle, bach
    -three phases
    -homophonic and polyphonic texture typical of renaissance music
    -medieval or church modes gave way to major and minor scales
    Concerto
    extended composition for instrumental soloist and orchestra usually in three movements, fast, slow and fast
    Aria
    song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, usually expressing emotional state through its outpouring of melody; found in operas, oratorios and cantatas.
    Sonata
    an instrumental composition in several movements for one to eight players. in music after the Baroque period an instrumental composition usually in several movements for one or two players
    Da Capo
    from the beginning an indication usually meaning that the opening section of a piece is to be repeated after the middle section
    Trill
    musical ornament consisting of the rapid alternation of two tones that are a whole or half step apart
    Gregorian Chant
    melodies set to sacred latin texts, sung without accompaniment; Gregorian chant was the official music of the Roman Catholic church.
    Troubadours
    the first large body of secular songs surviving in decipherable notation
    Organum
    medieval polyphony that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines
    Machaut
    1300-1377
    was famous both a musician and a poet
    -traveled to many courts and presented beautifully decorated copies of his music to noble patrons
    Humanism
    The dominant intellectual movement of the Renaissance focusing on human life and its accomplishments.

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