Medicine through time- Medieval and renaissance surgery & anatomy.
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Surgery- Middle ages.
Similar to operations by Greek & Romans.
Superficial procedures; small tumors, cuts, broken bones set etc.
No effective anesthetics, only opium, mandrake. Didn’t put to sleep- only made drowsy.
Seen as a profession, learnt through practice as apprentices.
Gain license from passing tests.
Anatomy- Middle ages
Church (RELIGION) refused to allow new ideas.
Medical surgeons only watched surgeons do procedures whilst Galen was read out. No hands on experience & inaccurate info.
Frequent wars, skills in demand, lots of practice.
Suggested Galen’s ideas about holes in the heart were wrong. This was right, but no one built on it until 1600’s.
Main achievement= proving Galen was wrong.
Dissection= Jaw bone made of 1 bone not 2.
No holes in septum= blood can’t flow through it.
Book= Fabric of human body= detailed diagrams of anatomy. Spread knowledge. 1543.
Printing= work spread across Europe.
Art= Paintings to illustrate work.
Changed attitudes, showed there was more to learn, led the way, spread knowledge.
Some doctors refused to believe Galen was wrong, made no-one healthier.
Proved how circularity system worked.
Heart acts as a pump, moving blood around the body.
Proved body has 1 way system for moving blood.
Wrote ideas in an anatomical account of the motion of heart and blood. 1628.
technology= inspired by mechanical water pumps.
religion= church condemned his ideas, and thought heart was center of soul not just muscular pump.
Individual genius= Careful dissection & observation.
laid groundwork for future investigation. Lots of aspects of medicine depend on knowledge of blood.
Still lots of work to be done, no one was healthier, many ignored his work and thought he was wrong.
From 1536, spent 20 years as an army surgeon. Gave him vast knowledge and experience on different types of wound.
Before Pare, used cauterizing to seal wounds (PAIN)
Pare replaced this with egg yolk, turpentine, oil of roses. Helped heal properly, less pain.
Developed ligatures. Silk thread tied around blood vessels.
War- observe injuries and try ideas
Chance- ran out of cauterizing oil, tried random combo.
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