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    Martial Law and the Fourth Republic (1972-1986) Sample Essay

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    On 22 September 1972. former Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile was reportedly ambushed by Communists while his staff auto was driving in San Juan. killing his driver but go forthing him unharmed. The blackwash effort. along with the turning menace of the New People’s Army and citizen agitation. gave Marcos adequate ground to declare Proclamation No. 1081. which he signed on 17 September ( postdated to 21 September ) . the same twenty-four hours. [ 42 ] Marcos. who henceforth ruled by edict. curtailed imperativeness freedom and other civil autonomies. abolished Congress. close down media constitutions. and ordered the apprehension of resistance leaders and hawkish militants. [ 43 ] The first old ages of Martial Law saw an addition in military hardware and forces in the Philippines. [ 42 ] giving a precursor to cut down military dependance on American forces to patrol the state. In 1984. American rental on Philippines military bases were extended merely by 5 old ages. as compared to 25 years’ extension in 1959. Agricultural production. particularly in rice production ( which increased 42 % in 8 old ages ) . [ 44 ] was increased to diminish dependance on nutrient importing.

    Filipino civilization and humanistic disciplines were promoted with the constitution of establishments such as the National Arts Center. However. to assist finance a figure of economic development undertakings. the Marcos authorities borrowed big sums of money from international loaners. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] Thus. turn outing that the state was non yet to the full independent economically. The Philippines’ external debt rose from $ 360 million ( US ) in 1962 to $ 28. 3 billion in 1986. doing the Philippines one of the most indebted states in Asia. [ 45 ] [ edit ] The Fifth Republic ( 1986-present )

    From February 22–25. 1986. many presentations against Marcos took topographic point on a long stretch of Epifanio de los Santos Avenue. The event. known as the People Power Revolution. involved many celebrated figures such as Archbishop Jaime Sin. Lt. Gen. Fidel Ramos and Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile. Finally. on February 25. the Marcos household was transported by a U. S. Air Force HH-3E Rescue choppers to Clark Air Base in Angeles City. Pampanga. about 83 kilometres north of Manila. before get oning US Air Force DC-9 Medivac and C-141B planes edge for Andersen Air Force Base in Guam. and eventually to Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where Marcos arrived on 26 February. Many people around the universe rejoiced and congratulated Filipinos they knew. Corazon Aquino succeeded as president of the Philippines. In 1986. Aquino adopted Original Pilipino Music ( OPM. defined as “any musical composing created by a Filipino. whether the wordss be in Pilipino. English or in any other linguistic communication or dialect” ) by necessitating hourly broadcasts of OPM vocals on all wireless plans holding musical formats in order to conserve. promote and popularise the nation’s historical and cultural heritage and resources. every bit good as artistic creative activities. and to give backing to humanistic disciplines and letters. [ 47 ]

    Singers like Regine Velasquez. Randy Santiago. Ogie Alcasid. Gary Valenciano. Manilyn Reynes. Donna Cruz and others are contributed to the President’s execution of Filipino music over the airwaves. Stations like DZOO-FM. DWLS. etc. . are adopted hourly OPMs efficaciously after the execution. Aquino besides encouraged the touristry sector to hike the national economic system. Under her six-year term. the Department of Tourism launched a plan called The Philippines: Fiesta Islands of Asia in 1989. offers tourist visits in the state to demo their natural admirations. to protect their autochthonal peoples. to continue heritage sites and to lend historical importance. In 1987. so President Corazon C. Aquino penned Executive Order No. 118 making the Presidential Commission on Culture and Arts. Five old ages subsequently. in 1992. this presidential directive was enacted into law—Republic Act 7356. making the National Commission for Culture and the Arts ( NCCA ) . On 12 June 1998. the state celebrated its centenary twelvemonth of Independence from Spain. The jubilations were held at the same time countrywide by so President Fidel V. Ramos and Filipino communities worldwide.

    A committee was established for the said event. the National Centennial Commission headed by former Vice President Salvador Laurel presided all events around the state. One of the major undertakings of the committee was the Expo Pilipino. a expansive show window of the Philippines’ growing as a state for the last 100 old ages. located in the Clark Special Economic Zone ( once Clark Air Base ) in Angeles City. Pampanga. During his term. President Joseph Estrada ordered to the National Telecommunications Commission to follow a Filipino language-based wireless format known as masa—named for his icon term Masa ( or Masses ) . [ commendation needed ] All wireless Stationss adopted the Masa format in 1998. [ commendation needed ] Many Stationss continued to utilize the Masa format after President Estrada left the presidential term in 2001 because the Masa format resonated with hearers. [ 48 ] Some in the wireless industry decry the effects masa data format has had. [ 49 ]

    On 14 August 2010. President Benigno Aquino III directed the Department of Transportation and Communications ( DOTC ) and the National Telecommunications Commission ( NTC ) to to the full implement Executive Order No. 255. issued on 25 July 1987 by former President Corazon Aquino. necessitating all wireless Stationss to air a lower limit of four original Filipino musical composings in every clock hr of plans with a musical format. [ 50 ] On 13 April 2012. the The Manila Times. the oldest English linguistic communication newspaper in the Philippines. published an column titled “Unpatriotic redaction and reporting” . taking the Filipino journalistic community to task for their coverage of what it described as “confrontation between our Philippine Navy and ‘law enforcement’ ships of the People’s Republic of China” in the Spratly Islands. The column opined that Philippine studies should province that disputed districts are Filipino district. and characterized those who refer to disputed districts as “being claimed by the Philippines” as “unpatriotic authors and editors” . [ 51 ]

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