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    Literature review and sustainable construction Essay

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    Literature Review

    Literature reappraisal consists of supplying the writer cognition about the research country that is being undertaken. It shows what writers have to state about the research country and to knock plants done antecedently, this is to be related to the subject country and to place the cardinal issues as portion of the survey. Harmonizing to Dr S.G. Naoum ( 2007 ) there are five chief activities involved in set abouting a literature reappraisal:

    1. Knowing the beginnings of information.
    2. Understanding how the library plants.
    3. Roll uping bing cognition on the topic, reading and note-taking.
    4. Systematically organizing the literature.
    5. Measuring and composing up the literature reappraisal.

    The literature reappraisal is conducted through primary and secondary research. Research can be conducted by utilizing text editions, diaries, newspapers, magazines and web sites and besides online databases. Following structured and extended literature reappraisals, cardinal issues to sustainable building and building SMEs studied which consequence in designation of “ barriers ” associated with implementing sustainable building by SME contractors. Such barriers are divided into six classs. These are cost, clip, people, engineering, market and jurisprudence.

    The literature reappraisal is two separate subjects of “ sustainable building ” and “ building SMEs ” . Both subjects provide the writer with in deepness cognition about development and issues refering sustainable building, every bit good as the nature and features of building SMEs and their attacks to building inventions. Uniting the apprehension and cognition from both positions, the writer carry out deeper geographic expedition into the “ barriers ” faced by the building SMEs in implementing sustainable building techniques and patterns.

    The barriers found in the literature are categorized under 6 “ cardinal barriers ” of cost, clip, people, engineering, market and jurisprudence. These will organize chief inquiries in primary research.

    Sustainable Construction

    Within the UK building industry, the construct of sustainable building has emerged as a consequence of turning concerns on the environmental and societal impacts created by the building activities. By definition, sustainable building is ( Khalfan, M.M.A, 2002: 15 ) :

    “ The creative activity and responsible direction of healthy built environment based on resources efficient and ecological rules ” .

    In general, sustainable building is used to depict the application of sustainable development within the context of the built environment. The treatment and practise about sustainable building frequently focus on the efficient procedures of building, usage of stuffs, handiness of engineering and other proficient side, which does non compromise the wellness of the environment or the associated wellness of the edifice residents, builders, the general populace or future coevalss ( Rhydin, Y. & A ; Vandergert, P, 2006: 5 )

    The Triple Bottom Line of Sustainable Construction

    It is of import to admit and place the other facets of sustainable building. As a whole, sustainable building comprises of three wide subjects of people, planet and net income frequently known as the “ ternary underside line ” .

    The aims of these three subjects are ( Constructing Excellence, 2004 ) :


    To recognize the demands of everyone impacted by building, from origin of a undertaking to destruction. The list includes building site workers, local communities, the supply concatenation and people that will utilize the finished merchandise.


    To protect the planet from the impact of emanations and waste affair and where possible, to heighten it and utilize natural resources, carefully.

    Net income

    To increase profitableness by doing more efficient usage of resources including labor, stuffs, energy and H2O.

    ( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: // )

    Sustainable building takes history of these aims in a balanced manner at all phases of a building undertaking. However, within the context of this research, accent will be given the environmental facet of sustainable building, at production/construction stage.

    Schemes and Drivers for Sustainable Construction

    Schemes for sustainable Construction

    There are many mandatory schemes every bit good as voluntary. These are aimed to promote and implement sustainable building patterns in the building industry. One of the earliest schemes for alterations in the building industry has started with the publication of “ Rethinking Construction ” in July 1998, which is famously known as The Egan Report. This study has criticised the under-achievement of the building industry and hence, has urged for alterations and betterments in presenting building undertakings.

    Following the Egan Report, the UK Government has ten an enterprise in advancing sustainable building through the publication of “ Constructing A Better Quality of Life ” publish by DETR in 2000. Within the publication, the authorities has suggested the following cardinal subjects for action on sustainable building schemes by the building industry:

    * Re-use bing edifice assets.

    * Design for minimal waste.

    * Aim for thin building.

    * Minimise energy in building.

    * Minimise energy in usage.

    * Do non foul.

    * Preserve and enhance biodiversity.

    * Conserve H2O resources.

    * Respect people and local environment.

    * Set marks ( i.e. proctor and study, in order to benchmark public presentation )

    Subsequently in March 2005, the authorities has farther emphasised its committedness towards sustainable building through the publication of “ Sustainable Development Strategy, Procuring the Future ” . As a replacement to the old scheme, this publication has proposed four cardinal subjects for action, as follows:

    * Sustainable communities.

    * Natural resources protection and environmental sweetening.

    * Climate alteration and energy.

    * Sustainable ingestion and production.

    Drivers for Sustainable Construction

    In advancing and promoting the return up of sustainable building, the UK Government has introduced more tough statute law and economic policies such as Revision to Building Regulation Part L, Landfill Tax, Quarry Tax, Aggregate Levy and Climate Change Levy. It has been acknowledged that statute law is the chief driver for alteration towards sustainable building. However, there are besides other drivers, which play important functions every bit good. These other drivers include ( Vetter, A et Al, 2006 ; DBA, 2002 )

    Improved engineering

    The new engineering and invention such as Modern Method of Construction and Lean Construction could offer a batch of benefits such as addition velocity of building, costs nest eggs and better bringing of merchandises and services.

    Requirements from funding organic structures

    Funding organic structures are puting more emphasis on the hazards associated with unsustainable development. The hazards will impact future profitableness and stockholder value.

    Business advantage

    In extremely competitory field, sustainability is going a powerful discriminator, capable of supplying a critical competitory border.

    On-site Practices for Sustainable Construction

    With respects to the activities on building site, there are five chief patterns of environmental sustainable building that need to be addressed carefully. The building squad must understand and implement these patterns throughout the building stage in order to accomplish the aims and benefits of sustainable building. These patterns are godforsaken direction, energy ingestion efficiency, H2O consumption/efficiency, usage and procurance of stuffs, and protection of natural environment ( biodiversity/ecosystem ) .

    Waste Management

    In 2001, building site and destruction waste in Britain was 94 million metric tons ( 24 % of all waste generated ) . Each twelvemonth there are around 13 million metric tons of stuffs that are delivered to site but ne’er used. ( Constructing Excellence, 2004: 2 ) . Sing these facts, waste direction on-site is highly of import to understating the waste produced on the building site. The first measure required is to segregate or divide the waste, as it is being produced. The following measure is to recycle or recycle the waste or instead, the waste can be sent or sold to blow direction Centre to be recycled ore reused for other applications. At the same clip, waste due to stuffs that are n’t being used and packaging can be returned to the providers through buying policy.

    Waste Segregation

    An effectual manner to cover with waste is to divide it at the point it is generated. This eases separation for recycling and is hence more valuable to the merchandisers of recycled stuffs. Waste can be segregated into different skips under classs of gypsum board, plastic, lumber, unlifelike rocks bricks and slates can be recycled for usage in building. Wood stuffs such as off-cuts can be reused as woodchip for landscaping or in stud walls. Similarly, substances such as dust, rubble and Earth can be reused for land renewal and site formation. Perry ( 2003 ) argues that waste segregation helps to do certain that per centum is high of recycled stuffs and saves money, besides provides a greater return. The increased rate of return virtually ever offsets the higher costs of preparation and labor involved in on-site waste segregation.

    Waste Recycling and Reusing

    Construction waste can be minimised by avoiding doing waste, recycling waste without recycling and recycling stuffs. ( WRAP ) Waste and Resources Action Programme advises that up to 30 % recycling and reusing can be achieved in building, at no extra cost for some undertakings. ( Kent Design Guide, 2006 ) . Re-used and recycled stuffs during building include sums, insularity, gypsum boards bricks, concrete roof tiles, particleboard blocks and reclaim lumber. The most effectual recycling chance of stuffs can be derived from the re-use of the bing site substructure component where possible. These include stuffs that are salvaged from bing building or destruction occupation such as steel and concrete.

    Meanwhile, other waste such as lumber, composition board, paper and besides green waste can be composed within a recycling country on-site. The compost produced can be used to heighten surface soil suitableness for usage within the landscape gardening. Wood come offing mulch produced from timber palettes. Besides off-cuts and surface soil can besides be re-used when possible within the landscape gardening to farther minimise waste.

    Buying Policy with Suppliers

    Integration coaction with providers can assist to understate waste through buying policy. Fresh stuffs and waste from packaging can be returned to the providers to be reused or recycled. The acceptance of ( JIT ) Just-in-Time bringing will besides lend to understate waste this is because so stuffs are ordered and delivered to demand. This will avoid waste ensuing from fresh stuffs and improper handling/storage.

    Energy Reduction/Efficiency

    Energy consumed on building site is chiefly for site services such as the site office and site lightings, usage of field, machineries and equipment besides transit chiefly for stuffs bringing to and from the site.

    Reduce Energy Consumption for Site Services

    In order to cut down the energy measures for site services particularly for site office and site lighting, more energy efficient attack methods are encouraged. This includes utilizing energy efficient lighting and warming equipments, every bit good as the monitoring and commanding the energy usage harmonizing to demands.

    Maximise Efficiency of Plant, Equipments and Machineries

    Plant, equipment and machineries used on-site should be chosen for their high energy efficiency. Through good site direction and building planning, sharing of works, machineries and equipment among subcontractors and site workers can be achieved. This will assist to cut down energy every bit good as building costs.

    Reduce Transportation for Materials Delivery

    Transportation system histories for 25 % of UK CO2 emanations and about 10 % of national energy ingestion us used in the production and conveyance of building merchandises and stuffs. Two ways of cut downing transit used in building is through local sourcing for stuffs with other providers and efficient bringings.

    Number of stuffs delivered to site should be reduced by doing certain that full vehicle tonss are achieved through sharing bringings. Sourcing stuffs and labour locally will besides assist to cut down transit and convey cost and clip nest eggs every bit good. ( Constructing Excellence, 2004 ) . At the same clip, recycling destruction waste and stuffs can assist to cut down transit and hence cut down costs and pollution.

    Water Conservation/minimisation

    Use of H2O on-site can be reduced through application of H2O preservation techniques and “ Dry Construction ” methods.

    Water Conservation

    Harmonizing to Kibert ( 2005 ) , techniques such as the usage of low-flow plumbing fixtures, H2O recycling, rain H2O harvest home and drinkable H2O can assist to understate the usage of H2O. Water used for worker ‘s hygiene and healthful can besides be reduced expeditiously through systems such as cistern misers which is boiler roll uping H2O and H2O board “ Hippo ” for urinal flowers. These techniques have been used successfully during the building of Princess Margaret Hospital in Swindon.

    Dry Construction

    The most effectual method for dry building is to utilize Modern Method of Construction such as pre-fabricated cladding systems and pre-manufactured units ( e.g. bathroom and kitchen cods ) . Advanced techniques under Thin building such as utilizing ready mix cement/concrete and dry plaster liners can besides lend to understating H2O used on-site.

    Use and Procurement of Construction Materials and Components

    Materials in building make up over half of all resource usage by weight. A sustainability issue deriving impulse in building industry therefore, is the usage of reclaimed and recycled stuffs. Pressures on landfill besides intend it is going progressively dearly-won to dispose of extra stuff get in building.

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