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    kVp, 15% rule

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    measurement of beam quality but it does affect beam quantity (intensity) to a lesser extent.
    kVp is
    quantity
    mAs affects
    electrons move faster, creates x-ray that are stronger and can get through the patient easear
    When kVp is raised
    quality
    mAs does not affect
    mAs
    Primary controlling factor for beam quantity
    because it changes quality and quantity and we don’t want that
    kVp is not primary controlling factor of density
    is the minimum amount of kVp required to penetrate the patient
    Optimum kVp
    gray
    To much kVp makes image
    mAs reduces by 50%
    If we increase the kVp 15%
    mAs doubles
    If we reduce the kVp 15%
    no amount of mAs can compensate for a lack of adequate kVp
    Classic phrase
    cuts the dose 2/3
    Increase of kVp 15% and reduction of mAs 50% ,what happens to dose?
    5%
    How much increase in kVp is required to see visible increase in density?
    30%
    5% increase in kVp decreases mAs
    reduce patient dose; for example if pregnant
    15% increase in kVp and 50% decrease in mAs can be done to
    increases the dose to a patient but it protects the film
    Using the grid
    absorb the scatter exiting the patient and increase contrast
    Grids…
    increase kVp 15% and reduce mAs 50% or reduce kVp 15% and double the mAs
    To maintain density we can
    double the density
    Increasing kVp 15% without compensation will do what to density?
    reduce the density 50%
    Decreasing kVp 15% without compensation will do what to density?
    Fluid in the stomach
    Ascites
    50% increase in mAs or 7.5% increase in kVp (Ascites, Paget’s disease, Pleural Effusion)
    Additive Diseases require
    double the mAs AND increase kVp by 15%
    For Wet plaster:
    double the mAs OR increase the kVp by 15%
    For Dry plaster:
    increase mAs by 30% or increase kVp by 5% (kvp better)
    For Fiberglass: (most common)
    increase mAs by 50% or increase kVp by 7.5%
    For Plaster/Fiberglass:
    average
    Sthenic
    above average
    Hypersthenic
    below average
    Hyposthenic
    anorexive
    Asthenic
    determined by the atomic number of the cells that make up the anatomy of interest
    Tissue Opacity
    30% decrease in mAs OR 5% decrease in kVp (Emphasyma or COPD, Osteoperosis, Pneumothorax)
    Destructive disease requires
    Thermionic Emm
    is the process of producing electrons in front of the fillament
    Thermoinic Emission
    low energy x-ray, saves the patient dose
    Filtration removes
    produce more x-ray, density goes up because there is more beam intensity
    Bigger generators

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