Keynes, John Maynard, Baron Keynes of Tilton1883-1946, English economist and monetary expert. His theories, known as Keynesian economics, are the most influential economic formulation of the 20th cent. In 1919 he represented the British treasury at the peace conference ending WORLD WAR I, but he resigned in protest over the VERSAILLES Treaty’s economic provisions. He gained world fame with Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919).
His departure from the classical concepts of a free economy dates from 1929, when he endorsed a government public-works program to promote employment. In the 1930s his theories prompted several nations to adopt spending programs, such as those of the NEW DEAL, to maintain high national income. His chief work, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1936), advocates active government intervention in the market and, during recessionary times, deficit spending and easier monetary policies to stimulate business activity. At the Bretton Woods Conference (1944) he helped to win support for the creation of a world bank. He was raised to the peerage in 1942.
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