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    Kaymito Leaves as Antiseptic Mouthwash Essay

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    RESEARCH INFORMATION SERIES ON ECOSYSTEMS Volume 14 No. 2 May – August 2002 Propagation Management Of Herbal and Medicinal Plants by Eduardo B. Principe and Aurora S. Jose 2 Foreword This issue contains the first part of a series of information on the propagation management of medicinal plants. Medicinal plants abound in the country. They used to be sleeping treasure due to lack of knowledge on their importance and uses in alternative health care, limited research on the development of photochemical components of the plants, and other related R & D undertakings on herbal products and medicines.

    We have consolidated relevant data and outputs of the training and pilot research conducted by ERDB on the integration of medicinal plants as agroforestry crops in the upland areas to provide useful information for farmers (upland or lowland) cooperatives, corporations, and other interested individuals. Production of medicinal plants in small or large-scale plantations will provide the pharmaceutical industry enough supply of raw materials. Propagating medicinal plants, especially in upland areas will not only be economically beneficial to the local people, but it will also help maintain a rich biodiversity in the ecosystem.

    CELSO P. DIAZ Director 3 Table of Contents Page Introduction…………………………………………………………………. 4 Uses of 10 scientifically validated medicinal plants…………… 4 Tips of growing herbal and medicinal plants: Site selection for growing medicinal plants………………. 4 General propagation methods for some medicinal plants…………………………………………………… 5 Harvesting and post handling of some medicinal plants…………………………………………………… 5 Drying medicinal plant parts………………………………….. 6

    Additional safety guidelines on using medicinal plants…………………………………………………… 7 Role of ERDB-DENR……………………………………………………. 7 Role of Farmer-Beneficiaries…………………………………………. 8 References………………………………………………………………….. 9 Table 1. Listing of Philippine herbal and medicinal plants promoted by the DOH……………………. 10 Table 2. The different ways in which herbal medicine can be practiced and level of technology needed……………………………………………….. 2 4 Introduction The Philippine population grows at an average of 1. 7 million each year. One of the concerns that go with population increase is the problem on people’s health. The high cost of western medicines and treatment resulted in the growing number of self- medicating people. Many have also resorted to traditional medicines, thus the growing demand for natural products. Aside from financial considerations, people opt for natural products because they have become concerned of what they use as food and medicines. With this situation, the Department of health through the Philippine Institute f Traditional Alternative Health Care (PITAHC) under Republic Act No. 8423 endorsed the use of traditional medicines in the country. Medical plants abound in nature. Since most of them are available and easily accessible, these medicines are more affordable compared to synthetic drugs. Ten medicinal plants have been endorsed by the DOH-PITAHC, after they have been scientifically validated to ensure safety and efficacy. These are Acapulco, Ampalaya (Makiling variety), Lagundi (five leaflets), Bawang, Bayabas, Sambong, Niyug-niyogan, Tsaang-gubat, Yerba Buena, and Ulasimang bato (pansit-pansitan).

    Uses of 10 scientifically validated medicinal plants Plant Uses 1. Lagundi (Vitex negundo) 2. Sambong (Blumea balsamifera L. ) 3. Ampalaya (Momordica charantia L. ) 4. Garlic (Allium sativum) 5. Guava (Psidium guajava) 6. Tsaang-gubat (Carmona cetusa) 7. Yerba-Buena (Mentha arvensis) 8. Niyug-niyogan (Quisaualis indica) 9. Acapulco (Cassia alata) 10. Ulasimang-bato (Peperomia pellucida) Cough and asthma Anti-urolithiasis (kidney stones) Lowering blood sugar and anti-diabetes Anti-cholesterol Oral/skin antiseptic Mouth wash Analgesic or anti-pyretic Anti-helminthic Antifungal Anti-hyperurisemia

    Other medicinal plants which is folkarically validated (needs further study for clinical tests and trial) are represented in Table 1. Tips of growing herbal and medicinal plants A. Site selection for growing medicinal plants Free from pollution such that: Soil – no heavy metals, pesticide residues and high microbial count Air-way from road heavily traversed by motorized vehicle Air-way from farms using pesticides Water – no contamination with microorganisms and pesticides Accessible to motorized vehicles With reliable and clean water source 5 B. General propagation methods for some medicinal plants Propagation

    Plants Sexual Asexual Akapulko Ampalaya Lagundi Niyog-niyugan Sambong Tsaang gubat Ulasimang bato Yerba buena 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C. Harvesting and post handling of some medicinal plants Plant Part Harvesting Duration of Yield (kg) harvested Frequency How air drying per plant (;10% M. C. ) (garbled) 1. Akapulco Leaves 5-6 months after trans- planting (mat) and every 4 months thereafter Cut all branches 0. 75 m from the ground. Remove all leaves and minor branches. Leaves 4-5 major branches. 7 days 14. 21 days 1st harvest 0. 50 K fresh leaves. 2nd harvest 0. 70 K fresh leaves. 3rd harvest 1. K fresh leaves. 2. Ampalaya (Makiling variety Leaves 2-3 mat. and every week thereafter Cut branches 60 cm long from the tip 7 days 14 days 0. 40-0. 50 kg fresh leaves 3. Bawang Bulbs 100-120 days after planting drying of leaves Uproot the whole plant Tie bulbs together and hang indefinitely 3. 23 g dried bulbs or 3. 23 tons/ha (Batangas) 4. Bayabas Leaves 3-4 years after planting Remove healthy leaves from stems 7 days 14-18 days 1st harvest (2 years after planting) 1. 40 kg fresh leaves 5. Lagundi Leaves 7-8 mat. and every 3-5 months thereafter Cut all branches 0. 75 m from the ground.

    Remove all leaves and minor branches. Leaves 4-5 major branches. 7 days 14-21 days 1st harvest 0. 80-0. 90 kg fresh leaves 2nd harvest 0. 95-1. 10 kg fresh leaves. 3rd harvest 1. 15-1. 30 kg fresh leaves. 6 6. Niyog- niyugan Fruits 2-3 years after planting every summer (March-May) Fruits have turned golden yellow Hand pick ripe fruits 14 days 30-45 days No ample data. Fruiting in UPLB is erratic 7. Tsaang gubat Leaves 7-8 mat. and every 4-5 months thereafter Cut all branches 0. 75 m from the ground. Leaves 4-5 major branches and remove minor branches. 4-5 days 14 days 1st harvest 0. 90-1. 00 kg resh leaves. 2nd harvest 1. 00-1. 50 kg fresh leaves. 3rd harvest 1. 50-2. 00 kg fresh leaves. 8. Sambong Leaves 3-5 mat. and every 3 months thereafter Remove all mature and healthy leaves. After 3-4 harvesting, prune plant 0. 5 m from the ground 7 days 14-21 days 1st harvest 0. 80-0. 90 kg fresh leaves. 2nd harvest 0. 90-1. 00 kg fresh leaves. 9. Ulisimang bato or Pansit- pansitan Whole plant minus roots 2. 5-3 mat. Uproot whole plant 30 days 90 days 0. 30-0. 50 kg fresh leaves and stems 10. Yerba Buena Leaves 2-3 mat. and 1-2 months thereafter up to 3 harvests Cut all branches 5 cm from the ase 7 days 14 days 1st harvest 0. 20-0. 30 kg fresh leaves and stems. 2nd harvest 0. 30-0. 40 kg fresh leaves and stems. 3rd harvest 0. 10-0. 20 kg fresh leaves and stems. D. Drying medicinal plant parts Before drying the different parts of 1. Medicinal plants, they undergo some tests to be sure that: moisture content of dried materials is ;10%; not moldy, without other pests, parts of other plants, nor stones and soil particles; microbial count and heavy metals are within allowable amounts; poisonous microorganisms are absent; no pesticides residues efficacy is almost similar to the standards. 7 2.

    Microbial test requirement Standard plate count – 10 cfu/g Coliform plate count – ;10 cfu/g Molds and yeasts plate count – ;10 cfu/g E. coli – negative Salmonella – negative Staphylococcus aureus – negative 3. Heavy metal analysis Allowable Amount Lead (Pb) 10. 0 ppm Cadmium (Cd) 0. 3 ppm Chromium (Cr) 10. 0 ppm Argon (Ar) 3. 0 ppm E. Additional safety guidelines on using medicinal plants 1. Do not take for granted the identification of the herb. 2. Use only the recommended amount for the recommended period. 3. If you’re over 65 and sensitive to drugs, start with low-strength preparation. . Be extra cautious if you have chronic diseases. 5. Pay attention to any symptoms of toxicity. 6. Be extra careful when using herb oil. 7. With few exceptions, pregnant and nursing women should not use healing herbs as medicines without doctor’s advise. 8. With few exceptions, healing herbs should not be given to children below 2 years old without doctor’s advise. Role of the Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, DENR 1. The ERDB with the project on medicinal plants will directly manage and provide technical assistance, as follows: The farmer-beneficiaries will be trained on the production and management of edicinal plants to be spearheaded by ERDB. The research team of ERDB will provide the technology using organic fertilizer, fungicide and pesticides. The farmer-beneficiaries will be trained on the medicinal livelihood options, like herbal soap making, ointment preparation, herbal tea production and planting stock production. At the same time, household use on proper preparation and use of medicinal plants for alternative health care will be taught, such as decoction and other uses of medicinal plants for health care. 2. The farmer’s activities will be supervised and monitored by ERDB research team.

    They will mutually coordinate their plans and directly implement the production management to enhance productivity of the land. 8 3. The ERDB will be responsible in the overall production and management of high- value and high priority medicinal plants. 4. The ERDB research team will be allowed and given full access to the farmer’s land to use their denuded forest land and/or farm lot to promote sustainable development for medicinal plants. 5. To support the poverty alleviation of the upland farmers through livelihood ERDB will provide and assists the cooperators in marketing medicinal products.

    ERDB will be the conduit to link farmer’s medicinal products to the herbal industry, manufacturers and markets. ERDB will be responsible in formulating marketing strategies and other marketing aspects of raw materials and other related products from the medicinal plants. Role of Farmer-Beneficiaries 1. The farmer should assign and designate the working force and land to be used for medicinal plant production. 2. They should be willing to plant and cultivate medicinal plants at their own farm lot, such as lagundi, sambong, tsaang-gubat, acapulko, banaba, alagao, ampalaya and other high-value crops with medicinal use. . They will plant the herbal and medicinal plants as agroforestry crops in their farm. 4. In cultivating the medicinal plants, the farmer’s farm should be free from heavy metals and pollution (soil analysis is required). 5. The farmer should use organic fertilizer, pesticides and fungicide. 6. The farmer should render their shared free labor for the planting, maintenance, and protection of the demonstration farm. 7. There should be at least 10 to 15 interested farmers to venture on medicinal plants farming. 9 References Cruz, J. 1985. Herbal medicine: A viable alternative for the Filipino people. Marsman

    Professional Chair lecture. Estrada Hall. UP-PGH. Manila. Department of Health. 1994. Technology status and need assessment for herbal medicines. An executive summary. DOH. Manila. Quintana, E. G. 2002. “Propagation, harvesting and post harvest of some medicinal plants”. lecture given last July 19, 2002. ERDB Training on the Production Management of Herbal and Medicinal Plants at Sta. Catalina, Atimonan, Quezon. Escobar, V. M. 1998. Raw materials for natural and herbal personal care products formulation. Paper presented during the conference on the 1998 BIO-Search. Department of Trade and Industry.

    Manila. Gomez, F. 1998. The rational use of medicinal plants in primary health care. Paper presented during the Conference on the 1998 BIO-Search. Department of Trade and Industry. Manila. Philippine Council for Health Research and Development. Department of Science and Technology. 1991. Selection and scientific validation of medicinal plants for primary health care. Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care (PITAHC). 1997. Republic Act. No. 8423, otherwise known as “Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act of 1997. . 1995. Feasibility study on the integrated herbal processing of agundi, sambong, yerba Buena and tsaang-gubat. Prepared by PCHRD, DOST. The Asia and Pacific Centre for Research. June 1995. Traditional Medicine Unit. 1992. Gabay sa Paggamit ng 10 Halamang Gamot. Department of Health. Ubaldo, J. B. 1997. Perspectives on integrated health care and herbal medicine. Kalayaan Press Marketing Enterprises, Inc. 50 Kalayaan St. , Diliman, Quezon City. 10 Table 1. Listing of Philippine herbal and medicinal plants promoted by the DOH. Common name Folkalorically-validated (needs further scientific Studies) Scientific name Uses 1. Abukado Persea americana Diarrhea/wounds . Abutra Arcangelista flava Wounds/pruritis 3. Alagaw Premna odorata Fever/headache gaseous distention/ cough/aromatic bath 4. Anis Foeniculum odorata Gaseous distention dizziness/fainting Hysteria 5. Balanoy Ocimum basilicum Dizziness/fainting hysteria/toothache cough/arthritis wounds/antifungal 6. Balatong aso Cassia occidentis Antifungal 7. Balimbing Averrhoa carambola Antipyretic 8. Bani Pongamia pinnata Gaseous distention 9. Banaba Lagerstroemia speciosa Kidney and bladder problems 10. Barak Curcuma zedoaria Gaseous distention 11. Dalanghita Citrus nobilis Dizziness/fainting ysteria/aromatic bath 12. Damong maria Artemmisa vulgaris Headache/wounds gaseous distention 13. Dayap Ditrus aurantifolia Fever/dizziness faiting/hysteria aromatic bath 14. Dilaw Curcuma longa Wounds/gaseous distention 15. Duhat Syzygium cumini Swollen gums/wounds 16. Eucalyptus Eucalyptus sp. Wounds/cough 17. Gatas-gatas Euphorbia hirta Skin antiseptic 18. Gugo Entada phaseoloides Hair growth stimulant 19. Gulasiman Portulaca oleracea Skin antiseptic 20. Gumamela Hibiscus rosasinensis Superficial burns/abscess 21. Ikmo Piper betle Gaseous distention sprain/wounds 2. Ipil-ipil Leucaena leucocephala Antihelmintic 23. Kabling Pogostemon cablin Arthritis/aromatic bath Scabies/sprains/pruritus 24. Kabuyaw Citrus hystrix Dizziness/fainting hysteria/aromatic bath 25. Kakawati Gliricidia sepium Scabies/sprains/pruritus 26. Kalamansi Citrus microcarpa Dizziness/fainting hysteria/aromatic bath 27. Kalantas Toona calantas Skin antiseptic 28. Kalatsutsi Plumiera acuminata Scabies 29. Kamakamatisan Solanum nigrum Skin antiseptic 30. Kamantigi Impatiens balsamina Antifungal/abscess 31. Kamote Ipomea batatas Constipation 32.

    Kamoteng kahoy Manihot esculenta Constipation/pruritus 33. Kamyas Averrhoea bilimbi Antipyretic 11 34. Kanya pistula Casia fistula Antifungal/constipation 35. Kangkong Ipomea aquation Constipation 36. Kasoy Anarcadium occidentele Swollen gums/constipation 37. Kaymito Chrysophyllum caimito Diarrhea/swollen gums 38. Kintsay Apium graveolensis Poisoning 39. Kugon Imperata cylindrical Diuretic 40. Lantana Lantana camara Arthritis/sprain 41. Lanting Plantago major Swollen gums/wounds 42. Linga Sesamum orientale Constipation 43. Luya Zingiber officinale Gaseous distention/cough 44.

    Mais Zee mays Diuretic/pruritus 45. Makabuhay Moringa oleifera Scabies/antiseptic 46. Malunggay Moringa oleifera Arthritis/scabies wounds/constipation 47. Mangosteen Garcinia mangostana Diarrhea/stomach pain 48. Mani Arachis hypogaea Constipation 49. Mansanilya Chrysantenum indicum Gaseous distention headache/adscesses 50. Manga Mangifera indica Aromatic bath/cough fever/vaginal wash 51. Mayana Coleus blumei Headache/sprains 52. Niyog Cocos nucifera Constipation/oral dehydration 53. Oregano Coleus amboinicus Gaseous distention cough/burns 54. Palay Oryza sativa Constipation/pruritus 5. Pandan mabango Pandanus odoratissmus Analgesic 56. Papaya Carica papaya Constipation/wounds 57. Pili Canarium ovatum Constipation/abscesses 58. Romero Rosmarinus officinalis Gaseous distention aromatic bath 59. Sabila Aloe barbadensis Hair growth/stimulant burns/wounds 60. Sampalok Tamarindus indica Fever/cough/wounds vaginal wash/aromatic bath 61. Siling labuyo Capsicum frutescens Arthritis 62. Sorosoro Euphorbia neriifolia Otitis media 63. Suha Citrus grandis Fever/dizziness fainting/hysteria aromatic bath 64. Sulasi Ocimum sanctum Toothache/dizziness gaseous distention ainting/hysteria/arthritis wounds/anti-fungal aromatic bath 65. Suob kabayo Hyptuis suaveolens Toothache/headache 66. Talumpanay Datura metel Antiasthma/abscess 67. Tangan-tangan Ricinus communis Skin antiseptic 68. Tanglad Andropogon citrates Gaseous distention mouthwash/aromatic bath 69. Tubang bakod Jatropha curcas Sprain Source: Department of Health Circular No. 168-A, Series of 1995. 12 Table 2. The different ways in which herbal medicine can be practiced and level of technology needed. Practice of herbal medicine Technology needed Traditional/household use Small-scale production for localized arket Medium-scale industrial production Large-scale industrial production, import and export Direct use of plant material: decoction, direct application, etc. Simple drying and packaging Controlled processes: drying, tableting, simple extraction, suspension, etc. Basic quality assurance Control processes Full quality assurance Wide range of pharmaceutical forms from crude form to extract and pure compound Production in plantation or using biotechnology Source: Paper presented by Dr. Francis M. Dayrit during the Conference on 1998 BIO- Search, Philippine Trade Center, Manila.

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