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    Increase Of Concentration Of Ethyl Acetate Biology Essay

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    First the purpose of the experiment is to find the output, transition and reaction rate by using the rules of material balance with chemical reaction for batch reactions. The intent of the experiment is to happen out the factors impacting the rate of reaction to increases the transition rate the output of merchandise produced. The hypothesis of the experiment is that the addition of concentration of Ethyl Acetate would besides increase the rate of reaction. From two different concentrations of Ethyl Acetate ( 0.01M and 0.02M ) have shown that the 0.02M of Ethyl Acetate shows a addition in the rate of reaction and transition rate of Sodium Hydroxide to Sodium Acetate.

    Second the theory portion shows the definitions of footings like saponification, batchwise reactions and factors that affect the rate of reaction. The most of import definition is the saponification which is the hydrolysis of an ester under basic conditions to organize an intoxicant and the salt of a carboxylic acid.

    Third, the process subdivision shows how to transport out the 3 major stairss which are readying of the reactant, the experimental apparatus and the processs to transport out the experiment.

    This is followed by the consequences and computations which is about the computation of the transition per centum and output of the reactions of different concentrations of Ethyl Acetate carried out in the experiment.

    After the consequences and computations, is the treatment portion which discusses the consequences obtained, states some safeguards to be taken while transporting out the experiment and the factors that affect the consequences.

    Last the decision concludes the study by saying if the purpose of the experiment had been reached and it besides states that the hypothesis that the higher the concentration of the reactant, the faster the rate of reaction and transition, has been proven.

    REPORT ON MATERIAL BALANCE WITH CHEMICAL REACTION

    1. Introduction

    1.1 Background Literature

    Conversion of Na hydrated oxide into Na ethanoate is called saponification. It is the procedure of doing soap. It is the reaction between an ester with a metallic base and H2O. It is besides related to the procedure used to change over natural fats into soap. ( Donohue 2009 )

    An base is a soluble salt of an alkali metal like Na. It is used in soap-making whereby it was obtained from the ashes of workss. Now, the term base describes a base which neutralizes an acid. ( Donohue 2009 )

    Bases used in soap devising are sodium hydrated oxide ( NaOH ) , besides called acerb sodium carbonate ; and potassium hydrated oxide ( KOH ) , besides called acerb potassium hydroxide. ( Donohue 2009 )

    Example: An illustration of the reaction is:

    ( Therese Lott ‘s Saponification Calculator – Standalone spreadsheet for ciphering saponification values in handmade soapmaking. )

    ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.freepatentsonline.com/6751527.html )

    1.2 Aim

    The purpose of this experiment is to find the output, transition and reaction rate by using the rules of material balance with chemical reaction for batch reactions. This will besides enable us to happen out factors to better the output and the rate of transition and reaction.

    1.3 Hypothesis

    The hypothesis of the experiment is that if the concentration is high, the output together with the rate of transition and reaction would besides increase. Therefore, from a 0.02M concentration of Ethyl Acetate and 0.01M concentration of Ethyl Acetate, the 0.02M concentration would hold a higher output, rate of transition and reaction. This is because at the start of the experiment the conduction value was high but as the reaction precedes the conduction value decreases demoing the concentration and figure of moles.

    2. Theory

    2.1 Saponification

    Saponification is the hydrolysis of an ester under basic conditions to organize an intoxicant and the salt of a carboxylic acid. Saponification is normally used to mention to the reaction of a metallic base with a fat or oil to organize soap. Saponifiable substances are those that can be converted into soap. In the experiment the coveted merchandise is sodium ethanoate. ( Donohue 2009 )

    2.2 Batchwise Chemical reaction

    A batchwise reaction is a reaction where by reactants are put in and the reaction is started. After the reaction has ended, the merchandises are taken out and the equipment and all are washed to be prepared for the following experiment. Unlike steady province reaction it does non hold a uninterrupted input and end product. ( Singapore Polytechnic 2009 )

    2.3 Percentage Conversion

    Xa = moles of A reacted

    Gram molecules of A Federal into the reactor x100 %

    It is defined as a fraction of reactants or provender that successfully reacted to organize the coveted merchandise. The above expression calculates the sum of reacts converted into merchandises. ( Singapore Polytechnic 2009 )

    2.4 Output of A Product

    YP = Moles of coveted merchandise formed

    Gram molecules of reactant fed into the reactor

    Output has 3 definitions. First it is sum of coveted merchandise formed based on the sum of restricting reactants feed into the reaction. Second it is the sum of coveted merchandise obtained divided by the sum of reactant consumed. Last, it is besides defined as the sum of merchandise obtained divided by the theoretically sum of restricting reactant consumed. The above reaction calculates the sum output based on merely the modification reactant. ( Singapore Polytechnic 2009 )

    2.5 Rate of Reaction

    The rate of reaction is the sum of clip taken for the chemicals to respond wholly. ( Singapore Polytechnic 2009 )

    2.6 Surface Area To Volume Ratio

    The surface country to the volume ration affects the rate of reaction. The smaller the atom, the larger its open surface country. With a larger open surface country more atoms can clash with one another doing more reactions to take topographic point within a shorter sum of clip. ( Purchon 2006 )

    2.7 Presence of a Catalyst

    If a accelerator is involved in a reaction, the sum of energy needed to get down the reaction ( activation energy ) decreases. Therefore, the molecules in the reactions will derive more energy that is equal to or more than the activation energy. The higher sum of energy a molecules has, the more active it will go and more hits will happen increasing the rate of reaction. However a accelerator is non involved in this experiment. ( Purchon 2006 )

    2.8 Pressure

    Pressure is another factor that affects the rate of reaction. Pressure chiefly affects gases. Gass can be compressed. Therefore, as force per unit area additions, gaseous molecules are closely packed together which allows them to clash more often with one another. This is about the same as altering the concentration as the figure of molecules is increased within a specific country. However the reaction is a liquid-liquid reaction so force per unit area does non impact the reaction in this experiment. ( Purchon 2006 )

    2.9 Concentration

    Concentration affects the rate of reaction. The higher the concentration, the figure of atoms within a specific country additions. Therefore, molecules are closely packed together and this increases the figure of hits between molecules so the rate of reaction additions. Concentration is similar to coerce where by the figure of molecules in a specific country additions. ( Purchon 2006 )

    2.10 Temperature

    Temperature besides affects the rate of reaction. If the temperature is higher, the energy degrees of the molecules additions and they would be given to more faster. Therefore, this consequences in more effectual hits in a shorter sum of clip. ( Purchon 2006 )

    2.11 Conduction

    Unlike Sodium Hydroxide, Ethyl ethanoate, Ethanol and Sodium acetate have negligible conduction. Thus the conduction value of the reaction is measured by the conduction of Sodium Hydroxide. The conduction is used to happen the concentration of Sodium Hydroxide as the reaction returns. ( Singapore Polytechnic 2009 )

    Fig.1 ) Graph of conduction values of Sodium Hydroxide against the concentration of Sodium Hydroxide. )

    3. Procedure

    3.1 Preparation of chemicals

    The MSDS of Na hydrated oxide and ethyl ethanoate was read and the handling and disposal of the chemicals must be familiarized before the start of the experiment. Disposable baseball mitts and chemical goggles were put on when fixing and managing the chemicals.500 milliliter of 0.01 M Na hydrated oxide solution and 500 milliliter of ethyl acetate solution to the needed concentration as discussed in Questions 1 and 2 of Pre-experiment Assessment was prepared. ( CP4047 Lab Manual )

    3.1.1 Fixing 500 milliliter of 0.01 M Na hydrated oxide solution:

    The needed volume of 0.1 M NaOH stock solution was measured utilizing a measurement cylinder and pour into the 500 milliliter volumetric flask. The solution in the volumetric flask was topped up with de-ionized H2O to the 500 ml-mark. A Stopper was placed on the flask, and it was shaken and inverted to blend the solution. ( CP4047 Lab Manual )

    3.1.2 To fix 500 milliliter of ethyl acetate solution:

    About 250 milliliters de-ionized H2O was poured into a 500 milliliter volumetric flask foremost. The needed volume was measured utilizing the micropipettor. The stock solution was dispensed into the 500 milliliter volumetric flask.The solution in the volumetric flask was topped up to the 500 ml-mark. A stopper was placed on the flask, and was shaken and inverted to blend the solution. ( CP4047 Lab Manual )

    3.2 Experimental apparatus

    ( CP4047 Lab Manual )

    3.3 Transporting out the Experiment

    The prepared Na hydrated oxide solution was poured into the reactor. The reaction conditions were adjusted to the predetermined degrees ( based on experimental methodological analysis discussed with Lecturer ) . The reaction conditions were recorded, Eg. temperature, stirring velocity, concentrations and volumes of reactants. Conductivity metre investigation was positioned into the reacting mixture. The ethyl acetate solution was poured in and the timer was started instantly. The conduction values ( mS/cm ) at a regular interval of 1 minute for 30 proceedingss of reaction clip was recorded. After 30 proceedingss of reaction, the stirring device was stopped and the magnetic splash saloon was removed from the mixture utilizing the magnetic rod. The conduction investigation was besides removed and rinsed exhaustively with de-ionised H2O. The reaction merchandise mixture was poured into the fictile waste container. The glasswork was rinsed and the experiment was repeated based on experimental methodological analysis discussed with the Lecturer. At the terminal of the experiment, the conduction investigation was removed from the responding mixture and rinsed exhaustively with de-ionised H2O. All chemicals were disposed in the fictile waste container and were brought to the waste together with any fresh reactants to W314 for proper intervention and disposal. All the used glass-wares was rinsed and tidied up the work infinite. ( CP4047 Lab Manual )

    4. Consequences and Calculations

    4.1 Determining the Output of Sodium Acetate at 15 Minutess

    The output of Sodium Acetate at 15minutes is determined with the concentration of Sodium Hydroxide as with the concentration, the figure of mole of Na hydrated oxide can be found out. Besides, with the molar ratio of Sodium Hydroxide and Ethyl Acetate, the figure of moles of Ethyl Acetate can be determined. With the usage of the output expression, the output of Ethyl Acetate can be calculated.

    4.2 Output When 0.01M of Ethyl Acetate Used

    Table 1 ) Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide in 1 min interval:

    Time ( Min )

    Conduction of NaOH ( µS/cm )

    Concentration of NaOH ( M )

    1

    1105

    0.00326

    2

    1072

    0.00307

    3

    1051

    0.00295

    4

    1030

    0.00283

    5

    1012

    0.00272

    6

    995

    0.00263

    7

    977

    0.00252

    8

    964

    0.00245

    9

    948

    0.00235

    10

    933

    0.00227

    11

    919

    0.00219

    12

    907

    0.00212

    13

    893

    0.00204

    14

    881

    0.00197

    15

    869

    0.0019

    16

    859

    0.00184

    17

    849

    0.00176

    18

    839

    0.00173

    19

    829

    0.00167

    20

    819

    0.00161

    21

    809

    0.00155

    22

    801

    0.00151

    23

    793

    0.00146

    24

    785

    0.00141

    25

    775

    0.00136

    26

    769

    0.00132

    27

    761

    0.00128

    28

    755

    0.00124

    29

    747

    0.00119

    30

    741

    0.00116

    Fig3 ) Graph of concentration of Sodium Hydroxide against clip ( for 0.1M of Ethyl Acetate used )

    NaOH + CH3cooc2H5 & A ; agrave ; C2H5OH + CH3COONa

    The chemical equation above shows that the molar ratio of NaOH to CH3COONa is 1:1.

    Original No.Of Moles of NaOH ( start of experiment ) is 0.005mol

    From Fig4.2.2,

    No. Of Moles of NaOH after 15 proceedingss ( midway of experiment ) is 0.0019mol

    No. Of Moles reacted: 0.005mol – 0.0019mol= 0.0031mol

    Conversion: Xa = moles of A reacted

    Gram molecules of A Federal into the reactor x100 %

    Xa= ( 0.0031/ 0.005 ) X 100 %

    =62 %

    No. Of Mole of CH3COONa formed is 0.0031mol

    Output: YP = Moles of coveted merchandise formed

    Gram molecules of reactant fed into the reactor

    YP = 0.0031/ 0.005

    = 0.62

    4.3 Output When 0.02M of Ethyl Acetate Used

    Table 2 ) Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide in 1 min interval:

    Time ( Min )

    Conduction of NaOH ( µS/cm )

    Concentration of NaOH ( M )

    1

    1080

    0.0031

    2

    1040

    0.0029

    3

    1005

    0.0027

    4

    972

    0.0025

    5

    942

    0.0023

    6

    816

    0.0022

    7

    889

    0.002

    8

    866

    0.0019

    9

    844

    0.0018

    10

    824

    0.0016

    11

    804

    0.0016

    12

    786

    0.0014

    13

    770

    0.0013

    14

    754

    0.0012

    15

    740

    0.0012

    16

    726

    0.0011

    17

    712

    0.001

    18

    700

    0.00092

    19

    688

    0.00085

    20

    678

    0.0008

    21

    666

    0.00073

    22

    658

    0.00068

    23

    648

    0.00062

    24

    640

    0.00057

    25

    630

    0.00052

    26

    622

    0.00047

    27

    616

    0.00044

    28

    608

    0.00039

    29

    600

    0.00035

    30

    596

    0.00032

    Fig4 ) Graph of concentration of Sodium Hydroxide against clip ( for 0.02M of Ethyl Acetate used )

    NaOH + CH3cooc2H5 & A ; agrave ; C2H5OH + CH3COONa

    The chemical equation above shows that the molar ratio of NaOH to CH3COONa is 1:1.

    Original No.Of Moles of NaOH ( start of experiment ) is 0.005mol

    From Fig4.3.2,

    No. Of Moles of NaOH after 15 proceedingss ( midway of experiment ) is 0.0012mol

    No. Of Moles reacted: 0.005mol – 0.0012mol= 0.0038mol

    Conversion: Xa = moles of A reacted

    Gram molecules of A Federal into the reactor x100 %

    Xa= ( 0.0038/ 0.005 ) X 100 %

    =76 %

    No. Of Mole of CH3COONa formed is 0.0038mol

    Output: YP = Moles of coveted merchandise formed

    Gram molecules of reactant fed into the reactor

    YP = 0.0038/ 0.005

    = 0.76

    4.4 Determining the Rate of Reaction

    The rate of reaction is determined by ciphering the gradient of the graph 1/concentration against clip

    Fig 4 ) Graph of 1/concentration against clip ( Rate of reaction )

    Rate of reaction = Gradient of 1/concentration against clip

    = Y2-Y1 & A ; divide ; X2-X1

    = – 0.00012 – ( -0.00018 ) & A ; divide ; 0.000005- 0.000008

    = 0.00006 mol/ L.Min / -0.000004 ( Mol.L ) 2

    =-15 min/ ( mol/L )

    5. Discussion

    5.1 Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction

    First the concentrations of Ethyl Acetate used were 0.01M and 0.02M which means that for 0.01M of Ethyl Acetate was obtained by thining 0.49cm3 of pure Ethyl Acetate and 0.02M was obtained by thining 0.92cm3 of pure Ethyl Acetate. By comparing the graphs ( Fig 3 and 4 ) above, the reaction ( 0.02M ) was the fastest. This was due to the concentration factor. The higher the concentration, the faster the rate of reaction as the addition in concentration means that there are more molecules in a specific country.

    Other factor like temperature and force per unit area were keep at a changeless ( standard room conditions ) . There was no accelerator involved the experiment. Therefore, these other factors did non impact the rate of reaction.

    5.2 Factors Affecting Conversion and Yield

    The transition of Sodium Hydroxide and the output of Sodium Acetate will ne’er be a 100 % due to the proficient equipment and uncoerced human mistakes. It is besides due to constrains in the lab like equipment or the continuance of the experiment. The longer the reaction, more transition and output could hold been produced.

    5.3 Factors Affecting the Conductivity Values

    The concentration of Sodium Hydroxide affects the conduction value of the reaction. If the concentration of Sodium Hydroxide is high, the conduction value will besides be high. Therefore, as the reaction returns, the conduction drops as the concentration of the Sodium Hydroxide decreases as it is being reacted off. For the 0.01M reaction, Fig 4.2.2 show that the concentration decreases significantly. However, for the 0.02M reaction, Fig 4.3.2 shows some fluctuations in the bead of the concentration of Sodium Hydroxide. This could be because of the equipment. The equipment, the conduction investigation and the machine has been known to turn off indiscriminately during the reaction. Therefore there was some abnormalities in the bead of concentration for the 0.02M reaction.

    5.4 Precautions to Be Taken

    During the experiment the Ethyl Acetate should ever be handled in the fume goon as it would break up in the unfastened, therefore impacting the concentration of the Ethyl Acetate and to forestall it from sloping anyplace else in the research lab. Baseball gloves should besides be worn to forestall bacteriums from polluting the reaction or chemicals and to besides protect our custodies from the chemicals. Goggles should besides be worn to protect our eyes from chemicals sprinkling into our eyes.

    5.5 Comparison of transition and outputs of different concentration of Ethyl Acetate

    The output of the reaction of 0.01M Ethyl Acetate is 0.62 while the output of the reaction of 0.02M Ethyl Acetate is 0.76. The 2nd reaction of 0.02M has a higher output due to the higher concentration of Ethyl Acetate. This is because the concentration of the reactants is more due to the addition in concentration of Sodium Hydroxide therefore, bring forthing more merchandises whereby the output of Sodium Acetate additions. However both the experiments did non bring forth a 100 % output because of human mistake and constrains of proficient equipment. Even if a accelerator was added, the output will be the same as the accelerator will merely increase the rate of reaction and impact the output.

    6. Decision

    In decision, the higher the concentration of Ethyl Acetate used, the faster the rate of reaction together with a higher transition per centum of Sodium Hydroxide. The concentration of Sodium Hydroxide affects the conduction values of the reaction because the consequences show that the conduction decreases as the reaction returns because the concentration of Sodium Hydroxide besides decreases as the Sodium Hydroxide was being reacted off. Therefore, the hypothesis is proven to be true.

    The purpose of the experiment was met as consequences province that with a higher concentration of Ethyl Acetate, the rate of reaction together with the rate of transition additions. The concentration of the Ethyl Acetate responding with Sodium Hydroxide in a reactor as clip base on ballss by was studied. However the experiment could be improved by adding in a accelerator or increasing the temperature to increase the rate of reaction and transition rate.

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