With the increase of IT developments, IT industry has entered a critical period of integration, restructuring and innovation. Information technology and information systems have an increasing influence on the organization. The security, management, risks and control of information systems are gradually becoming a major problem. Network security is not just about protecting an individual computer; it is also about identifying and correcting vulnerability found in the entire network. “Security is a state of well-being of information and infrastructure in which the possibility of successful yet undetected theft, tempering and disruption of information and services are kept to low tolerable.” .
Cyber security plays an important role to overcome the security problem, hacking is one of the cyber crimes. When organizations are connected to internet and have different type of data, it can be expected that data can be hacked by any group of hackers, so it is important to secure the organization from hacking.
Hacking is the practice of changing the features in the computer system, the computer system can be broken through hacking by information and communication technologies. Hacking attack activities are of different types, two major types of hacking are ethical and unethical hacking which are categorised as worms’ attack, fake websites, internet Public records, phishing, trojan programs and spoofing etc. Three types of attacks are occurred the most, named as Simplicity, Mastery and Illicitness.
Some hidden components are installed in computer system whenever users download applications from internet or any sharing software. This phenomenon is called spyware. There are some common forms of spyware such as browse Hijacking, cookies and web bugs and fake website etc.
A term Phishing is used in this hacking attack which is most popular and common. In this technology attackers steal the secret information about computer user like username and password, details of credit and debit card, etc. “Trustworthy entity in electronic communication is the appropriate method of phishing attack”. Hackers try to exploit the sympathy of people through e-mail attacks. They send some pone site link through email, computer user has to avoid this link, according to safety precaution. There are several techniques are used for this purpose such as manipulation of link, phone phishing, filter evasion, trojan programs and lookalikes etc.
In this technique Hackers create TCP/IP packets using other computer’s IP address, this type of technology is called spoofing. Many types of spoofing are presented in computer hacking system whereas IP spoofing, Server spoofing, etc. The TCP/IP spoofing allows in accessing the routing information.
Many groups are involved in hacking activities and considered as expert and professional hackers, that’s why hacking system becomes most popular and common term now a days. Various tools (virus, worms and exploits) are used for hacking a device or a computer system.
This research proposal have some research questions:
- What are the types of hacking?
- How does hacking effect?
- What are the key threats in computer security from hacker?
- 1What are the ways of protecting computer hacker and predators?
Objectives and motivations:
- To determine the possible measures for the maintenance of integrity of cyber secure and evacuate the systems from hackers and culprits.
- Investigation of proactive approaches to minimize the risk of hacking and Cyber-crime.
To minimize the security threats, there are several things to do as a hacker in defensive purpose, 
- Auditing the network, network auditing is an important software which is used as security tool. It provides a proper view of complete network and subnets that make it easy to identify the open ports. 
- Network scanning is also a crucial step to secure the network, it will detect the extreme critical susceptibilities (unorganized firewall or exposed web servers) that can affect the security of an organization.
- Evaluation of weak links of computer system and networks and determine the spiteful contents from the network traffic.
- Tracing tools will be used to trace the hackers and close all ways of operating systems and network from security culprits.
- Security threats of a system will be diagnosing to restrict the system or network from unauthorized access by installing advanced security or IDS system,
- It is also important to protect the IT systems from all-pervading Testing.
Some safety measures are necessary to take for the protection of personal computers from hackers:
- 2- way firewall will be used to protect the system from culprits. The 2-way firewall has the characteristics of port cloaking that has stealth mode, the system is difficult to detect from outside.
- Operating systems will be refurbishing to help the new users for use. It includes three steps, first data wiping, is a procedure to delete some data for some specific reason, 2nd is testing, testing the hardware and software to integrate the system to fulfil the basic requirements, last is cosmetic repair.
- It is also important to increase the browser security, that restrict to open any effected pages.
- Questionable Websites must be ignored to protect a computer.
Some social awareness and precautions are also important to secure from cyber crime 
- User should not open any link without having the information, there might be some virus that can hack the information. 
- It is also useless and threatful act to create unnecessarily many email accounts and use unspecified user id and password for net surfing.
- The system must be protected with a password and lock immediately if user is not working or lock automatically if the system is not in use for long time. User id and password must be strong with special character and change it periodically.
- User should not provide the personal information to any site without having any credibility and avoid to check or download any unknown greetings, screen saver or free or pirated software.
- The softwares provided by vendor must be checked that they are free from bugs and there is no missing operating system patches, vulnerable services, and insecure choices for default configurations. 
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