Kazakhstan and PakistanAbstract Globalization provides opportunities for developing countries toprogress economically and increase human development. This paper definesthe difference between economic development and human development and showsthat Pakistan is at the low end of human development, while Kazakhstan isat and average level, considered a middle income country. Human developmentgoes beyond measures of GDP, literacy rates, and life expectancy. Factorssuch as education, gender equality, welfare, and human rights are also veryimportant.
Introduction In this paper we discuss the economic, social, and human developmentof Kazakhstan and Pakistan in the era of globalization. For the purpose ofthis discussion, we treat economic, social, and human development asessential the same, in contrast to economic growth of the respectivecountries. The distinction between growth and development is important,since we are focusing on the impact of globalization and development oneach country’s society. Economic growth refers to the increasing ability of a nation toproduce more goods and services. Economic development implies thatindividuals of that nation will be better off due to changes in economicand social structures that will reduce or eliminate poverty.
Economicdevelopment can be measured in a number of different ways including theHuman Development Index, a Gender Empowerment Measure, a Human PovertyIndex and a Human Freedom Index. All of these measures were developed bythe United Nations Development Program. Globalization can have bothnegative and positive affects on a nation. It can impact levels of economicgrowth a country may experience, impact levels of unemployment or impact acountry’s quality of life. While, theoretically, having an increasing national output meansgreater material welfare and a rise in living standards, it does not equateto having higher levels of well being for individuals in that nation. Economic growth can, in fact, have negative impacts on a nation includingenvironmental degradation and the loss of traditional cultural values.
Italso may mean there is greater inequality between different classes insociety, that is, the gap between the rich and the poor may grow. It is forthese reasons that economic development measurements are also used. Economic growth as a measure fails to account for other importantsocial and economic factors such as the size of the black market, domesticwork which is not given a financial value, the level of damage to theenvironment and inequalities in income distribution. Various indicatorshave been developed to compensate for the limitations of economic growthmeasurements.
Rather than just measuring the economic living standards in acountry, development indicators measure the welfare of individuals in thatcountry. The main development indicator used is the Human Development Index(HDI), devised by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) to measurethe economic achievements of a nation in combining economic growth as wellas social welfare. The HDI takes into account three major factors:. Life expectancy at birth: High levels of longevity are critical for acountry’s economic and social well being. . Levels of educational attainment: The HDI measures adult literacy andthe ratio of people in primary, secondary and tertiary education.
. Gross Domestic Product per capita: seen as being a measurement of theability of people to access goods and services. The HDI is essentially a score between 0 and 1. A score of 0 wouldmean no human development has taken place and a score of 1 is the maximumamount of human development. In 2001, Kazakhstan and Pakistan were rankedas number 76 and 144, respectively.
Kazakhstan’s index was 0. 765, which isabove the world average of 0. 722, and can be considered a middle incomecountry with medium human development. The regional index for East Asia andthe Pacific coincides with the world average of 0. 722. Pakistan on theother hand is ranked much lower at 144, with an index of 0.
499. Thisindicates that the country is far below the world average and even lowerthan the average low income country with an index value of 0. 561. It isalso in the category of low human development and does not even come closethe above mentioned regional average. Globalization can impact a nation in a variety of ways.
A positiveeffect of globalization for many nations is that it allows for them toachieve higher levels of economic growth. With higher levels of trade,world output will increase which should mean higher levels of economicgrowth followed by increased standards of living. Globalization has alsoaffected unemployment rates. It has created millions of jobs throughout theworld. Twenty-seven million jobs worldwide .