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    Four steps of secondary succession, from disturbed soil to hardwoods

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    Ecological succession that begins where an ecosystem was disturbed by an event such as fire, flood, or farming, leaving behind intact soil.
    Secoundary Succession
    1st year after forest fire, flood, or farmer abandons a field: Weeds grow,
    usually crabgrass.
    Step One
    2nd year: Seeds blown in or carried in by animals become new weedy
    plants, such as horseweed.
    Step Two
    5 to 15 years: Small pines begin growing in the area, gradually become a
    pine forest
    Step Three
    As older pines die hardwoods succeed them if the climate supports them.
    Step Four

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