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    Effect of Hot and Cold Weather on Construction Labour Productivity Essay

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    Consequence of Hot and Cold Weather on Construction Labour Productivity

    Executive Summary

    The research deals with the fluctuation of labour productiveness in utmost conditions conditions in India. As we head more and more into the rural countries for building the laborers are faced with unprecedented conditions conditions as utmost cold and heat emphasis combined with other geographical factors. We compare the difference in productiveness achieved in normal conditions conditions with utmost cold locations as Kargil and hot parts as Ahmedabad. Further this is compared by the criterions set by IS 7272 for ideal productiveness. After analyzing the consequences recommendations are done specifically for domestic undertakings sing the state of affairss predominating in India and future conditions uncertainnesss.


    CHAPTER-1: Introduction

    2. Aim OF WORK
    3. Scope OF WORK


















    List OF TABLES


    CHAPTER-1: Introduction


    An Industry finally thrives upon the physical input put in by the laborers and the building industry is no exclusion, in fact the building industry is one of the most labour dependant industries runing in India. It is the basis of the laborers, which finally runs this industry. Though batch of work has already been done to optimise labour productiveness around the universe, bulk of the undertakings still stay behind agenda and are completed with cost and clip overproductions, though this might be due to multiple grounds but labour productiveness still dominates the concluding end product.

    With the addition in population the substructure and public wealth building is being pushed more and more into the rural countries which are untouched in the last century. Thus are the surveies, which prevailed in earlier times about the productiveness, as these new parts put up new challenges of the on the job environment. Not much has been done to look into the productiveness alterations in these parts, this frequently consequences in fluctuation from the IS values which should be attained ideally.

    1. Aim

    Our aim of this research is to analyze and sketch the factors, which are, determinable in changing productiveness end products in inauspicious conditions. To compare the factors stated in IS 7272 with existent land informations for productiveness achieved on building site and suggest methods to counter. This would farther transform into meeting undertaking mileposts in clip.

    1. Scope OF WORK

    The research work is based on existent site informations collected from different building sites in India. It aims to analyze the fluctuations observed if any from the criterions in the IS 7272 for labour productiveness and the grounds taking to these alterations. It covers both extremes of the temperature in its survey hot and cold parts, eventually proposing the steps to be taken to optimise labour end product in utmost conditions conditions.


    The methodological analysis adopted to fix this study ranged from reexamining work antecedently done in these countries of labour productiveness along with site visits and aggregation of informations. We reviewed documents from diaries and tried to pull a few decisions by correlating the surveies and common factors in the research documents. Data aggregation was done by sing sites of undertakings under advancement across India. For the interest of comparing with other site informations to maintain maximal parametric quantities same we worked on productiveness for the activities which were common to both the sites. Data was collected over different periods of continuance with regard to every undertaking and analysed for their productiveness computations. These computations were farther compared with the criterions set by the IS 7272. Further we attempt to sketch the factors which may be the likely cause for the divergence and suggest remedial steps to counter them.


    Since the information was collected from sites in India and the observations made were from Indian pack of laborers, the consequences and survey are limited to Indian subcontinent. Besides ideally for comparing there should be similar state of affairs of work with less variables such as work type and other conditions other than the conditions, but due to the restriction of the undertakings the sites were non put to deathing similar undertakings, therefore the informations can non be said to be 100 % precise. Although we have put in our best attempts to counter this by choosing similar activities of executing. Furthermore due to the restriction of handiness of informations the consequences achieved can non be said to picture the conditions predominating all through India as more work is awaited on this subject in India.


    To analyze the work antecedently done research in this country we studied legion documents published on Productivity from assorted diaries across the Earth. Though it was out observation that the research work was more or less biased to the productiveness concerns due to increasing temperature, and less about the colder conditions. India being a tropical state experiences both extremes of the clime through the twelvemonth, therefore we review work done in colder parts excessively, a few of our findings are as follows.

    Tord Kjellstrom, PhD ; R. Sari Kovats, MSc ; Simon J. Lloyd, MSc ; Tom Holt, PhD ; Richard S. J. Tol, PhD studied the altering form of temperatures across the Earth, which will finally take to a planetary clime alteration and an addition in heat burden and will degrade the productiveness of workers in the approaching hereafter. It was a region-based survey where they established a relationship between the rise in temperature and loss of productiveness as a per centum bead. The survey was localized for a much accurate premise, overall there was a loss in productiveness with the addition in temperature.

    Meglan, Meglan & A ; Company Ltd. outlined in their publication Construction Claim Topics the loss of productiveness due to effects of conditions the grounds for loss. They subdivided their survey into three subcategories Low temperature and Wind iciness, high temperature and humidness & A ; Wind lone effects. They stated that the loss of productiveness occurs In all three conditions due to different factors in each conditions. They stated that a bead of every bit much as 50 % can be observed in utmost state of affairss. They established a fact that humidness besides played a damaging function in the loss as at the same temperatures the alteration in productiveness was apparent with the alteration in humidness degrees at the site.

    Adham Shahin, Simaan AbouRizk, Yasser Mohamed and Siri Fernando developed a simulation based model for quantifying the cold conditions part impacts on building scedules, the model composed of constituents that help in apprehension and imitating building undertakings. The basic purpose of this model is to enable the research worker to quantify the impact of conditions changes on undertaking agenda. The procedure involves the creative activity of a basic discreet simulation theoretical account to imitate the activities on site.

    An article published in THE Monitor | Climate stated the economic impact of the increasing temperature uncertainness across the Earth, they forecasted the hereafter developments for the twelvemonth 2030 where the anticipation is of 450 hot spots from the 55 existent today. In 2030 the expected loss is 413 billion USD. In their state degree impact analysis they have plotted a state wise loss index in which India comes under the Acute class calculating a loss of 450,000 million US $ extra economic cost in 2030 merely due to increase in temperature of working environments of laborers. They suggest version to the new environment is the most cost effectual step, which can be taken against this.

    Yildirim, Kemal.iˆ? Koyuncu, Cuneyt. Koyuncu, Julide. In their paper does temperature impact labour productiveness: cross- state grounds published in the diary Applied Econometrics and International Development.They established a relation between temperature and labour productiveness and plotted a graph to picture it. The survey done over 111 over a period of several years’ provinces that addition in temperature has a negative consequence on labour productiveness.

    Pieter Diedericksaˆ? Senior Project Director, Oil Sands Projects, Petro-Canada, Canada in his survey OPTIMIZING WINTER CONSTRUCTION studied the effects of cold conditions on building industry. He used temperatures below 200F as the footing of cold temperature. He stated that an mean loss of labour productiveness due to cold temperature is about 50 % . Thomas suggested the usage of one-year rhythms to schedule activities most affected by conditions. He suggested remedial steps as usage of air current protective armor and apparatus of machinery when the conditions are inauspicious alternatively of physical labor-intensive work.

    Karin Lundgren1* , Kalev Kuklane1, Chuansi Gao1 and Ingvar Holmer1 presented a paper on Effectss of Heat Stress on Working Populations when Confronting Climate Change, Their survey relates o heat emphasis on workers and how it negatively impacts the productiveness overall. They suggested the ideal temperature for physical work as 370C, any more beyond these consequences in physiological effects in the human organic structure cut downing its capacity to execute fruitfully.



    Labour productiveness every bit defined as the sum of end product received by the figure of adult male hours or adult male yearss input by the worker. Labour productiveness optimisation is needed to acquire the optimal end product from a undertakings work force, therefore is besides termed as work force productiveness. In the building industry which is preponderantly labour intensifier this factor plays a determinable function in make up one’s minding the destiny of the undertaking itself. And in a state like India where there is inexpensive and efficient labor available, if used decently the production costs can be brought down drastically, be it of any industry in this scenario. Labour productiveness can be measured in figure of ways depending on each industry but the pollex regulation for computation of labour productiveness is

    Labour productiveness = volume step of end product / step of input usage


    In the building industry most of the contractors take careful note of fluctuation in local and regional conditions forms, the norms andtrends, and based on these they schedule their building undertakings. Well planned building agendas are prepared to take advantage of favorableseasonal, local, or regional conditions forms and avoid the unfavourable 1s.

    Therefore, when a Project doesn’t start on clip, or it gets delayed during the clip of executing conditions may go an all of import factor in the overall hold, cut downing planned productiveness and efficiency. Most of the building contracts allow excusable hold and clip extensions at the clip of unnatural or unusual conditions conditions. When this sort of hold is encountered it incursenormous losingss in the figure of excess adult male hours spent, and farther holds of the undertaking and work.

    Hot conditions and cold conditions create efficiency and productiveness losingss which can be explained individually as follows:

    Cold Weather

    Workers productivity beads with the autumn in temperature. The productiveness of the manual labor beads bit by bit during utmost temperature conditions. This productiveness losingss can be best quantified by comparing productiveness from cold conditions effected work periodsto that measured during normal work periods, thereby finding the difference. It merely requires man-hours informations and conditions informations ( can be obtained from cyberspace ) , sorted by day of the month. The man-hours and temperature informations are entered into a spreadsheetprogram by day of the month any their productiveness is calculated.

    Hot Weather

    Merely as the productiveness decreases in cold conditions, same losingss besides occurs when the temperature rises above 20 nine grade centigrade to thirty four grade centigrade and beyond. The inefficiencies can merely be quantified by existent measuring of productiveness in hot conditions and so comparing with normal conditions productiveness.


    A building undertaking is dependent on different degrees of work done by the workers. Therefore by and large the division is among the degrees of laborers. Namely

    1. Skilled Labor
    2. Semi Skilled Labor
    3. Unskilled Labor


    Skilled Labours constitute operators, chiefs, and machine operator’s i.e the laborers with give a higher end product of work per hr of input. The skilled laborers normally are head laborers for a pack, operators for particular equipment and are highest paid in the batch.


    Semiskilled labors are second-rate paid workers with slightly lesser accomplishments as compared to skilled 1s, their productiveness end products are higher per hr though compared to unskilled laborers. Carpenters, Masons, Fixers constitute this list of semi-skilled labors


    This is the largest kin of laborers who are good for maximal physical effort, and it’s their tireless attempts which finally proves damaging in the undertaking being on agenda. Their productiveness depends on how expeditiously they are managed by their chiefs. It is this kin of people we need to optimise for the drastic alteration in overall timing agendas.


    To function different intents there are different steps of productiveness, one can take the method which serves their intent.

    Thomas et Al. defined different theoretical accounts of steps to mensurate productiveness which are as follows:

    3.1. Economic theoretical accounts

    The section of Commerce, and other governmental bureaus use a productiveness definition in the undermentioned signifier:

    Equation ( a )

    Entire factor productiveness ( TFP ) =Total end product / Labor + Materials + Equipment + Energy + Capital

    Project-specific theoretical accounts

    A more accurate definition that can be used by governmental bureaus for specific plan planning and by the private sector for conceptual estimations on single undertakings is:

    Equation ( a )

    Productivity=Output/ Labour+ Equipment + Materials

    Equation ( B )

    Productivity = Square pess / rupees

    Design professionals use productiveness informations in this signifier.

    3.3. Activity-oriented theoretical accounts

    A contractor is more likely to specify productiveness utilizing a narrowly defined version of ( a ) and ( B ) , where the units of end product are specific for generic sorts of work. Typical units are three-dimensional paces, dozenss, and square pess. Various related activities, such as formwork, steel support, and concrete arrangement, can be combined utilizing the earned-value construct ( Thomas and Kramer, 1987, cited in Thomas et al. , 1990, p. 706 ) .

    Productivity is expressed as units of end product per Rupee or work-hour.

    At the undertaking site, contractors are frequently interested in labour productiveness. It can be defined in one of the undermentioned ways ( Thomas and Mathews, 1985 cited in Thomas et al. , 1990, p. 707 ) [ 5 ] :

    Equation ( 4 )

    Labor productivity=Output/Labour cost

    Equation ( 5 )

    Labour productivity=Output/Work-hour

    There is no standard definition of productiveness and some contractors use the opposite of Eq. ( 5 ) :

    Equation ( 6 )

    Labour productivity=Labour costs or work-hours / Output

    Eq. ( 6 ) is frequently called the unit rate. Still other contractors rely on the public presentation factor as a step of productiveness

    Equation ( 7 )

    Performance factor=Estimated unit rate / Actual unit rate


    Designation and rating of factors that impact labour productiveness has become of import to find the cardinal elements that can be changed to convey about optimisation of the full procedure of work. Due to the complexness of work involved one factor entirely can non be held responsible for the alteration instead it is a combination of multiple factors which consequences in the desired/undesired alteration in the productiveness of an person or the undertaking as a whole. Some of the cardinal factors are listed as follows.

    1. Work Agenda
    2. Labour Pool
    3. Native Topographic point of the pack
    4. Temperature
    5. Type of undertaking
    6. Undertaking Location
    7. Time Allocated for activities
    8. Design factors
    9. Execution program factors
    10. Material factors
    11. Equipment factors
    12. Labour factors
    13. Health and safety factors
    14. Supervision factors
    15. Working clip factors
    16. Undertaking factors
    17. Quality factors
    18. Fiscal factors
    19. Leadership and coordination factors
    20. Organization factors
    21. Owner/consultant factors
    22. External factors

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