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    Dogfish Essay

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    Muscle| Origin| Insertion| Action| Description| PARIETAL MUSCLES| | | | Completely coats the muscles| FIN MUSCULATURE| | | | |

    DORSAL: Mass of muscles: extending into the fin| Fascia| | Abductor, levator, extensor of the fin| | Fin muscle| Metapterygial cartilage | Pterygiophores and ceratotrichia| | | VENTRAl side of the pelvic fin| From linea alba and pubioischiac bar| Pterygiophores and ceratotrichia| Depressor, adductor, or flexor | | Levator muscle| Scapular process of pectoral girdle and adjacent fascia| Pterygiophores| | Fanlike extensor| Depressor mass| Coracoids bar of the pectoral girdle | Pterygiophores| | Similar ventral flexor| BRANCHIAL MUSCULATURE| |

    Ventral longitudinal bundles| Pectoral girdle| | | | Branchial muscles| | | Operate the gill arches and jaws| | CONSTRICTOR SERIES| | | | | Epihyoidean| Fascia; otic capsule| Hyomandibula| | | Craniomandibularis| Otic capsule| Palatoquadrate cartilage| | a. k. a. orsal constrictor; Front of epihyoidean | Quadratomandibularis| Palatoqaudrate catilage| Mandible( Meckel’s cartilage)| | Large muscle at the jaw angle| Preorbitalis | Chondrocranium| | | Aka (suborbitalis & levator labialis superiorismuscle); between the upper jaw and the eye; cylindrical muscle| Adductor mandibulae| | | Closes the lower jaw| Combination of quadratomandibularis and preorbitalis| Intermandibularis| Midventral raphe| Mandible | | |

    Interhyoideus| | | | Thin sheet above the intermandibularis| LEVATOR SERIES| | | | | Levator maxillae superioris| Otic capsule| Palatoquadrate cartilage| Raises the upper jaw| In front of dorsal constrictor| Cucullaris| Fascia of dorsal longitudinal bundle| Epibranchial cartilage| | Lying between the dorsal longitudinal bundle and inserts on the epibranchial cartilage of the last gill arch | Levatores arcuum| | | Raises the gill arches| This is the whole levator series| INTERACRCUAL SERIES| | | | |

    Anterior cardinal sinus| | | | Above the gill pouches| Interarcual muscles| Extends chiefly between pharyngobranchial cartilages| | Draw the arches together & expands the pharynx| | HYPOBRANCHIAL MUSCULATURE| Occupies the region bet. coracoid bar and the mandible. Strengthen and elevate the floor of the mouth cavity, strengthen the walls of the pericardial cavity, and assist in opening the mouth and expanding the gill pouches in inspiration of water. Common coracoarcuals| Coracoid bar | fascia| | In front of the coracoid bar| Coracomandibular | Extending forward to the mandible| | | Above constrictor layer; aka geniocoracoid & geniohyoid| coracohyoid| | Basihyal| | Dorsal to the mandible; pair of strong muscles| Thyroid gland| | | | Behind the center of the lower jaw, between the anterior parts of coracomandibular & coracohyoids| Coracobranchials| Extending obliquely laterally | Ceratohyal cartilage| | Dorsal to coracohyoids| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Myosepta- white connective tissue partitions that separates the zigzag myotomes. * Lateral septum- white longitudinal line , the outer edge of the horizontal skeletogenous septum. -divides the myotomes into dorsal or epaxial portions and ventral or hypaxial portions. * The epaxial muscles form the dorsal longitudinal bundles. * The hypaxial muscle is also divisible into longitudinal bundles: lateral which is darker in color and ventral longitudinal bundle which in cross-sections can be seen to be subdivided into two bundles. * Linea alba- a white partition which separates the myotomes of the two sides of the body.

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