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    Dance Appreciation ch.1 – 4

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    What are the 3 purposes of dance? why people dance?
    Art, Entertainment, & Ritual
    What are the 3 categories of dance?
    Recreational, Folk/Ethic, & Concert Performance
    True
    True/False: Dance as entertainment typically includes tricks, virtuosic movement, and stunts.
    What is the focus of dance as ritual?
    Relationship of self & deity.
    purpose, intentional rhythm, culturally patterned sequences, extraordinary nonverbal movement which has value in and of itself
    What are the four components that distinguish dance from non-dance activities?
    What are the dates of the Renaissance Period?
    1400 AD to 1700 AD
    Why did people in the Primitive Period dance?
    Communication and ritual.
    The Contemporary Period.
    In what time period did many dance styles/forms emerge and develop?
    What are some qualities of dance in the Medieval Period?
    Dance was banned unless it glorified the church.
    Obsession with death – The Danse Macabre (Dance of Death) emerged due to the Black Plague
    Vaslav Nijinsky. It contained very primitive movement, turned in legs, sharp/angular gestures that were very different than traditional ballets at this time.
    Who choreographed Rite of Spring, and what made this ballet stand out when it was first performed?
    False! (Renaissance Period)
    True/False: Ballet flourished during the Ancient Period.
    Describe how dance movements looked in the Primitive Period.
    Very basic and pedestrian. Imitated nature and animals. (running, hopping, stomping, clapping etc.)
    What is the literal meaning of the word “renaissance”?
    Rebirth
    What are some components of dance during the Ancient Period?
    – aesthetic elements of dance were deliberately sought
    – advancements in government and language began to affect development of dance aesthetics
    – Greece – quest for beauty and knowledge reflected in dance
    – India – Bharata Natyam developed
    What was popular about the Contredance, and what are two basic steps that were included in the dance?
    – It gave more people the opportunity to dance at one time.
    – Contretemp
    – Assemble
    True
    True/False: An aesthetic reaction to a work of art means that the viewer senses something from the work, positive or negative.
    Name some things that might affect an audience member’s interpretation or aesthetic experience of a dance.
    Religion
    Education
    Values
    Morals
    Political beliefs
    Upbringing
    Social status
    etc.
    artistic intentions
    Emotion
    Story/Narrative
    Message or Point of View
    Movement for movement’s sake
    Describe how David Parsons created Sleep Study.
    – used familiar movement/shapes (sleeping)
    – played with timing and placement
    – Retrograde (reverse)
    false
    True/False: A choreographer always finds music first (before creating movement) in his/her creative process.
    false
    True/False: A choreographer never collaborates with the dancers and always comes up with the movement prior to teaching it to the dancers.
    What are the three choreographic elements that are needed to create movement?
    Space
    Time
    Energy
    technique
    Placement, alignment, and execution are components of _______________.
    Bound = contained, held, controlled
    Free = continuous, ongoing
    What is the difference between bound flow and free flow?
    Definition of dance
    art form that is displayed through thehuman body using the medium of movement, projects feelings, has the power to communicate and evoke responses
    where, when, and why can dance be found?
    anywhere, anytime, for any reason
    Dance as an art form
    – Focus: Intention of the work
    – There is meaning to the movement
    – Movement tends to be more abstract
    – Artistic Intention
    – Storytelling/Narrative
    – ex: ballet, modern companies, improvisation
    Dance as an Entertainment
    – Focus: Audience
    – Incorporates tricks, stunts, virtuosic movement
    – Movement tends to be literal
    – Expressive, emotive, storytelling, narrative
    – The purpose of the dance is to entertain
    – ex: cheerleaders, cirque du soleil, etc.
    Dance as a Ritual
    – Focus: Relationship of self & deity
    – The dance is about your relationship with a higher power
    – Can be more emotional/personal; transcend self; changes you inside
    – Often represented in cultural
    dance styles/world dance
    – ex: whirling dervish, haitian dance, liturgical dance, etc.
    How do we learn dance?
    dive right in approach, creative approach, and technical approach
    Dive-Right-In Approach
    – Limited movement vocabulary
    – Simple movement patterns; repeatable patterns
    – Honors tradition through repetition
    – Less intimidating
    – Lacks choreographic creativity
    – Examples: Club dancing,
    Social, Folk, Country Western
    Creative Approach
    – Spontaneous/Original/Individual
    – Practicing on one’s own time with no formal instruction
    – Check out own resources; collect information
    – A way to learn about personal movement preferences, analyze strengths/weaknesses, explore new territory
    – Assumes no training; encourages innovation
    – Tend to get too comfortable/similar in movement
    – Examples: Improvisation, Creative Movement, Breakdancing
    Technical Approach
    – Take class; “Copy-cat” training
    – Learn from instructor, professor, specialist
    – Celebrate history & tradition of training methods
    – Focus on accurately repeating movements recognized as a style
    – Commitment to increasing skill
    – Tend to have some limited
    movement vocabulary
    – Examples: Ballet, Jazz, Modern
    My definition of art would be a way of expressing one’s self through creativity.
    aesthetic experience
    develop when audience members clearly knows what they like/ what they didn’t like, and why they responded to the dance the way they did, feelings evoked from viewing a work of art
    Dance in the Primitive Period
    (Prior to 3000 B.C.)
    – Dance was used as a means of communication.
    – Dance rituals were done to worship and appease the gods.
    – Dance rituals were done at special occasions, such as a birth, marriage or death.
    – Many dance rituals focused on fertility and having an abundant harvest.
    – Movements were imitative (of nature and animals) and very basic.
    Dance in the Ancient Period
    (3000 B.C. to 400 A.D.)
    – Conscious decision to dance.
    – Aesthetic elements were deliberately sought.
    – Developments and advancements in writing, agriculture and government helped to shape the dance aesthetic.
    – Movement choices were made in order to represent certain themes (choices being made in dance).
    – Dances combined movement, music and poetry and were often participatory.
    Bharata Natyam
    in india, developed as a temple dance, began in 500-300 b.c.e., Known for flowing arm
    movements, stamping feet,
    head and eye gestures
    Dance in the Medieval Period
    (400 A.D. to 1400 A.D.)
    – Fall of Roman Empire = lesser interest in art/beauty
    – Dance was banned unless in glorified the church.
    In most of Europe, the Christian church saw dance as a pagan activity.
    – Art to church
    – The Black Plague killed as much as half the population of Europe and led to preoccupation with death and dying, superstitions and witchcraft. The Dance of Death (“Danse Macabre”) emerged at this time.
    – In Islamic lands, dance flourished during this time period and was done for ritual and entertainment purposes.
    Dance in the Renaissance Period
    (1400 A.D. to 1700 A.D.)
    – A renewed interest in the arts developed. “Rebirth of the arts”
    – Court ballets flourished and folk dancing remained popular with the working class.
    – Class distinction – 16th & 17th centuries
    – Dance became less of a group activity and more about the individual artist.
    – Early social dances to ballet
    – Ritual to codified technique
    – Ballet emerged as a professional art form.
    – Creativity to Tradition
    Dance in the Contemporary Period
    (1700 A.D. to present)
    – Development of many dance genres.
    – Introduction of classical and contemporary ballet, as well as modern dance.
    – The twentieth century presented the world with some of the greatest dance artists and dances every known.
    – Advancements in technology & science are happening alongside art.
    the creative process
    – Process to Product
    – Duration
    – “Setting” a work
    – Improvisation
    – Collaboration
    david parson
    sleep study, aritistic director of parsons dance, and former member of Paul Taylor Dance company
    elements of space
    A body exists in space,
    moves in/through space, and is
    contained in space.
    The 3 dimensional space
    of the total body.

    Beyond the stage:
    – Positive/Negative space
    – Symmetrical/Asymmetrical
    – Lines/Curves

    elements of time
    Time is the organizing factor in movement. When allowed, it can dictate/control the movement

    speed/tempo,pulse/underlying beat, rhythmic pattern, time signature/ meter, no counts at all, breath/ emotional phrasing, stillness, words/ text/ sounds/ silence

    Energy
    – Power, drive, oomph
    – It provides the “go” power.
    – Determined by time-space factors or by a particular motivation

    dynamics and qualities

    positive space
    shapes formed by the body of the dancer
    negative space
    shapes formed by empty area surrounding dancer
    Movement dynamics/ qualities (rudolf Laban)
    – space: direct/indirect
    – time: sudden/sustained
    – weight: strong/light
    – flow: bound/unbound(free)
    technique
    placement, alignment, execution
    performance
    style, intention, nuance, movement ownership
    Alexander technique
    helps dancers to relieve tension and redirect energy, practitioners use gentle touch to guide dancers in positions that are less stressful and more relaxed
    Feldenkrais Method
    gentle, hands-on approach that helps dancers overcome limitations in their bodies and improves mobility, dancers can become aware of habitual patterns and then try to change them
    Bartenieff Fundamentals
    focuses on how the body can function better and teaches dancers to develop appropriate alignment, mobility, sequencing, strength, flexibility, mobility, kinesthetic awareness, and expression
    Rolfing (Structural Integration)
    can dramatically alter a person’s posture and structure, series of 10 sessions that are deep tissue massages which focus on connective tissue manipulation and retaining the body to work with gravity
    training
    – # classes per week
    – Styles of dance
    – Dance-related techniques
    – can be very stressful and may take long hours
    salary
    – freelance: $8.03-$18.82 an hour (2008)
    – professional: $15,200-$41,280 (2008)
    audience
    – must have an open mind
    – must respect dancers
    – Participants / Equal Partners
    – Instant Gratification vs.Investment
    -Etiquette
    – all interpretations of dance are correct because it is one’s opinion
    primitive period
    prior to 3000 B.C.
    ancient period
    3000 B.C. – 400 A.D.
    Medieval period
    400 – 1400 AD
    Renaissance period
    1400 -1700 AD
    Contemporary period
    1700 – present

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