The Supreme Court has significant impact on molding the society of the United States, so does it play an important role in the process of the realization of equal protection on the right to education. From Plessy to Brown, every case that had milestone meaning indicated the evolution on the equal protection of the right to education, and also marked the progress of American civilization. However, there are different points between Plessy and Brown. Brown v.
Board of Education was educational case of black race, but Plessy v. Ferguson is not it; the result of Plessy is isolation but equal, the Brown show us that isolation and unequal. In 1892, Plessy, a Louisiana citizen sat in the white man compartment, head of train crew requirements him to the black compartment according to State Of Louisiana’s rules, Plessy refused. Head of train crew is called police, hands him over convicts by the court. But Plessy thought that he should enjoy the society, politics, and economical equal power similarly with the American citizens, moreover this judge to be unfair.
The federal court believed that the non-white race felt he is the third-rater, their subjective imagination rather than in the legal reason. If two races in the rights of citizens and the political rights aspect are the equality, a race will not be lower than another race in the social life aspect. But if a race lowers than another race in the social life aspect, the federal constitution cannot cause them to impose the identical level. Plessy v. Ferguson document the essence is the racial segregation whether to conform to the American constitution.
The federal Supreme court has made the decision which is isolation, but equal. It had the huge influence to American afterward politics, the economy and social life. Constitution protects the equality is in the political equality, is not in society’s equality, although Plessy v. Ferguson does not involve the education question. But Brown v. Board of Education is model case of racial education, Mrs and Mr Brown require local school to accept their kids to study in the whites’ school, and they are refused so that to engage in legal proceedings.
The similar case also occurs in other states, basically the black minor requests the court aid and the desegregation, causes them to obtain enters its study right in the community public school. Black children’s school education has been neglected; white schools have more the curriculum rational, scientific and adequate funding for schools than blacks, the wages of their teachers higher than the wages of black school teachers. In short, isolation but equal, is the equality of slogan; in fact, it is inequality, even unequal on the surface.
After Brown v. Board of Education has been proposed as a vignette of campus and educational discrimination, not only blacks suffered, but the white people are a shame. Justice Harlan pointed out dealing with the rights and duties should not be considered the race whether the legislature or the judiciary. The surface is not differential treatment in the Louisiana legislation, in fact the blacks as low as nationals. If you adhere to the principles and spirit of the Constitution, this superior status is not sustainable (Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896).
Brown case is one of most historic in the constitutional history of the United States Supreme Court, with the emergence of its judgments, the principle of isolation but equal is denied completely. The consequence has been not only limited to public schools but also spread to all aspects of social life. Brown case caused major changes in American society; it was the African-American civil rights movement as a starting point after World War II. Many things have to conclude one point, Court; this was the same feature in these cases. Alexis de Tocqueville, 19th-century French scholar visited the United States and has been devoted to the U.
S. Constitution and the federal judiciary and society influence the development. In his view, every political event has to resort to the judge’s authority (Richard John Neuhaus, 2009). He was acutely aware that the last have become the legal issues when almost all of political problems cannot solve in the United States. Its political influence and the stabilization and exist of federal depend on seven federal judges. We can see that the Supreme Court played a very important role.
Court’s decision do not to increase educational funding, but it rationalize the allocation of resources to promote education. 960s is not a violence age President Johnson addresses the poverty and racial discrimination as the main target and reform civil rights, poverty, health care, and education. It is important and complicate time, culture movement, rock-roll, antiwar movement were appeared in the 1960s. That was thinking flood in the American history, it is not exist many strikes like past time. I think H. Rap Brown commented “violence is American as cherry pie” is wrong. In his points, violence including movement and war, these activities makes US society upheaval.
The baby boom generation is important factor for these movement and change of thinking. The United States had a population peak occurs after World War II. The people who born in the first decade of the baby boom are the main protest movement because of they are enrolled in high school or college. Generally, people who advocate the radical young students means radical social and political reform movement, called “New Left” (Coppack, 2008). The people who dropped out of school, drug abuse, and other ways of cultural rebellion, they often did some indulgent actions, as known as the “counter-culture” movement (Walsh, 2009).
Why these people have to join counter culture movement? They have dissatisfaction and criticism of the mainstream culture and existing systems. Sympathy for the minorities and women, even the desire for peace are a common feature of these movements. I believe that many the participants of counter-cultural movement are also member of the New Left Movement. Hippies are good representation of the counter culture movement, it usually involve drug abuse, sex and abortion.
History professor Theodore Roszak points out the hippies and radical students have a same point, which is counter-culture. Roszak, 1995) In his views, counter-cultural movement is all social protest movements in the United States, such as democracy movement, women’s liberation movement, black civil rights movement, and anti-war movement. These movements absolutely have some actions what we cannot accept, but it is not violence. Drug abuse, sex, abortion and other revolt actions, you can say they are criminal, but they do not use force to attack someone. Another side, there are many wars and movements were occurred every decade or couple in the United States, so “violence is American as cherry pie” is not a good description for 1960s.
From the middle 1960s to the beginning of 1970s, America waged the Vietnam War which was the longest and the most consumed in the history of America. It had great effect on the economy, the politics, the military affairs and the society of America. As the Vietnam War advanced further, a spectacular peace antiwar movement occurred in America. The folk organized automatically peace antiwar movement for objecting to the government war of violating Vietnam, which were the largest scale and the most successful.
It not only significantly influenced the public opinion and government policy but also the Vietnam War itself. However, US Army and Vietnam soldier and civilian have lots of damage. It is war rather than a violence event. Roosevelt led to the United States became the world policeman Roosevelt’s concept of “The Big Stick” has led to the United States becoming the policeman of the world, but I have to say Monroe Doctrine is prototype of “The Big Stick”. The Monroe Doctrine stated two points: First, European countries can no longer be any American countries as colonies.
Secondly, the US would attack the country which any attempt to threaten national security. Monroe Doctrine is a basic principle of the United States diplomacy to American; it is a diplomatic victory under the United States has not enough strong situations. Actually it is not for Latin American countries, just for the United States because of the United States is not dependent on Europe in the materials, raw materials, markets, it does not need to get natural resources through foreign plundering to survival.
Pearl Harbor lead to the United States began a period of global diplomatic intervention, and World War II accelerated the development of the United States, and reaches an incredible level during World War II. After the Allies master World War II, the United States established a new international political and economic order structure. Politically, the President Roosevelt strengthens the new implementation capacity of the collective security mechanism, and he stressed that Britain, the Soviet Union, China and America, as long as the four military powers united determination to maintain peace, it will not launch another world war.
This is the famous “four policemen” (Ettinger, 1997). Capture Panama was first step of Roosevelt’s “The Big Stick”. Panama is a small country, but it has a most value transportation so that the United States desire to get it as a neighbor. Finally, Roosevelt has the Panama effortless from British, and then makes a canal. Roosevelt has repeatedly mobilized the armed forces and the practice of arbitrary intervention in other countries; it provoked strong opposition from Latin American countries, but also leads to the national dissatisfaction.
For “the ig stick” policy, no matter what energy or to solve regional issues, the United States are keen on military means. In order to control two-thirds of the Middle East and world oil, the United States launched the war in Iraq. In fact, “The Big Stick” policy eventually led to serious deterioration of the security situation in Iraq, insurgents continues to create the bloody explosion. In the late 20th century, the Middle East problem did not resolved and the blood event still happened, but the “stick” face to the Africa. In addition, “the big stick” policy is often counterproductive.
The United States originally wanted to “stick” to seize control of oil to manipulate international oil prices to combat opponents, earn huge profits, but it is the victims itself in the end. With international oil prices grew in recent years, Americans began to be overwhelmed, but Iran, Venezuela and other countries have huge oil profits. References Plessy v. Ferguson: Justice Harlan Dissents (1896), U. S. 537 Richard John Neuhaus (2009). The Pro-Life Movement as the Politics of the 1960s Retrieved from http://www. firstthings. com/article/2009/01/001-the-pro-life-movement-as-the-politics-of-the-1960s-49 Martyn Coppack (2008).
- Dennis Hopper & Peter Fonda in Easy Rider: 1960’s Counter-Culture And The Birth Of New Hollywood Retrieved from http://classicfilms. suite101. com/article. cfm/easy_rider
- Karine Walsh (2009). Honduras, Colombia, Cuba: the United States are Sticking with the Monroe Doctrine Retrieved from http://www. globalresearch. ca/index. php? context=va;aid=16302
- Theodore Roszak (1995). The Making of a Counter Culture. University of California Press David Ettinger (1997). The UN of the “Four policemen”. Retrieve from http://www. unc. edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2001_10-12/book_ettinger_fourpolice/book_ettinger_fourpolice. html