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    Chemistry Investigatory Project Sample Essay

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    Rayon is the oldest commercial manmade fibre. The U. S. Trade Commission defines rayon as “manmade fabric fibres and fibrils composed of regenerated cellulose” . The procedure of doing cellulose xanthate was discovered by C. F. Cross and E. J. Bevan in 1891. The procedure used to do cellulose xanthate can either be a uninterrupted or batch procedure. The batch procedure is flexible in bring forthing a broad assortment of nylonss. with wide versatility. Rayon’s versatility is the consequence of the fibre being chemically and structurally engineered by doing usage of the belongingss of cellulose from which it is made. However. it is slightly hard to command uniformity between batches and it besides requires high labour engagement. The uninterrupted procedure is the chief method for bring forthing rayon. Three methods of production lead to clearly different rayon fibres: viscose rayon. cuprammonium rayon and saponified cellulose ethanoate. Of the methods mentioned. the viscose method is comparatively cheap and of peculiar significance in the production of nonwoven cloths.

    For a really long period of human history. adult male depended on natural elements to do fibres for vesture. These were natural fibres. However. with the technological progresss many manmade man-made fibres were developed. Man-made fibres have two chief classs: One that are made from natural merchandises ( cellulosic fibres ) and the other that are synthesized from chemical compounds ( non cellulosic polymer fibres ) . Rayon fibre is a natural-based stuff made from the cellulose of wood mush or cotton fibre. In fact. they are made from reformed or regenerated cellulose. As such. they are identified as regenerated cellulose fibres.

    Fabrication Procedure

    While there are many fluctuations in the fabrication procedure that exploit the versatility of the fibre. the followers is a description of the process that is used in doing regular or viscose rayon.

    Regardless of whether wood mush or cotton linters are used. the basic natural stuff for doing rayon must be processed in order to pull out and sublimate the cellulose. The ensuing sheets of white. purified cellulose are so treated to organize regenerated cellulose fibrils. In bend. these fibrils are spun into narrations and finally made into the coveted cloth.

    Processing Purified Cellulose:

    • 1. Sheets of purified cellulose are steeped in Na hydrated oxide ( acerb sodium carbonate ) . which produces sheets of base cellulose. These sheets are dried. shredded into crumbs. and so aged in metal containers for 2 to 3 yearss. The temperature and humidness in the metal containers are carefully controlled. •

    • 2. After ageing. the crumbs are combined and churned with liquid C disulfide. which turns the mix into orange-coloured crumbs known as Na cellulose xanthate. The cellulose xanthate is bathed in acerb sodium carbonate. ensuing in a viscose solution that looks and feels much like honey. Any dyes or delusterants in the design are so added. The cloying solution is filtered for drosss and stored in VATs to age. this clip between 4 and 5 yearss. •

    Producing Fibrils:

    • 3. The viscose solution is following turned into strings of fibres. This is done by coercing the liquid through a spinneret. which works like a shower-head. into an acerb bath. If staple fibre is to be produced. a big spinneret with big holes is used. If filament fibre is being produced. so a spinneret with smaller holes is used. In the acerb bath. the acid coagulates and solidifies the fibrils. now known as regenerated cellulose fibrils. •



    The procedure for fabricating high-wet-modulus rayon is similar to that used for doing regular rayon. with a few exclusions. First. in measure # 1 above. when the purified cellulose sheets are bathed in a acerb sodium carbonate solution. a weaker acerb sodium carbonate is used when doing HWM rayon. Second. neither the base crumbs ( # 1 above ) nor the viscose solution ( step # 2 ) is aged in the HWM procedure. Third. when doing HWM rayon. the fibrils are stretched to a greater grade than when doing regular rayon.

    Choice Control:

    As with most chemically oriented procedures. quality control is important to the successful industry of rayon. Chemical makeup. timing and temperature are indispensable factors that must be monitored and controlled in order to bring forth the coveted consequence.

    The per centums of the assorted fibres used in a blended cloth must be controlled to remain within in the legal bounds of the Textile Fiber Identification Act. This act lawfully defines 17 groups of semisynthetic fibres. Six of these 17 groups are made from natural stuff. They include rayon. ethanoate. glass fibre. metallics. gum elastic. and azion. The staying 11 cloths are synthesized entirely from chemical compounds. They are nylon. polyester. acrylic. modacrylic. alkene. spandex. anidex. saran. vinal. vinyon. and nytril.

    Within each generic group there are trade name names for fibres which are produced by different makers. Private companies frequently seek patents on alone characteristics and. as could be expected. try to keep legal control over their competition.


    As one of the industry’s major jobs. the chemical byproducts of rayon have received much attending in these environmentally witting times. The most popular method of production. the viscose method. generates unwanted H2O and air emanations. Of peculiar concern is the emanation of Zn and H sulphide.

    At present. manufacturers are seeking a figure of techniques to cut down pollution. Some of the techniques being used are the recovery of Zn by ion-exchange. crystallisation. and the usage of more purified cellulose. Besides. the usage of soaking up and chemical scouring is turn outing to be helpful in cut downing unwanted emanations of gas.


    Rayon. unreal fabric stuff composed of regenerated and purified cellulose derived from works beginnings. Developed in the late nineteenth century as a replacement for silk. rayon was the first semisynthetic fibre.

    Rayon is described as a regenerated fibre because the cellulose. obtained from soft forests or from the short fibres ( linters ) that adhere to cottonseeds. is converted to a liquid compound. squeezed through bantam holes in a device called a spinnerette. and so converted back to cellulose in the signifier of fibre. The first practical stairss toward bring forthing such a fibre were represented by efforts to work with the extremely flammable compound nitrocellulose. produced by handling cotton cellulose with azotic acid. In 1884 and 1885 in London. British chemist sir Joseph Wilson swan exhibited fibres made of nitrocellulose that had been treated with chemicals in order to alter the stuff back to nonflammable cellulose. Swan did non follow up the presentations of his innovation ; therefore. the development of rayon as a practical fibre truly began in France. with the work of industrial chemist Hilaire bernigaud. Comte de chardonnet. who is often called the male parent of the rayon industry. In 1889 chardonnet exhibited fibres made by squashing a nitrocellulose solution through spinnerettes. indurating the emerging jets in warm air. and so reconverting them to cellulose by chemical intervention. Industry of “chardonnet silk. ” an early type of rayon and the first commercially produced semisynthetic fibre. began in 1891 at a mill in besancon.

    Rayon remains an of import fibre. although production has declined in industrial states because of environmental concerns connected with the release of C disulfide into the air and salt byproducts into watercourses. Such concerns have led to the development of new types of rayon such as lyocell. Lyocell is produced by fade outing wood cellulose in a atoxic aminoalkane oxide dissolver. which is washed from the regenerated fibres and recovered for reuse.

    As the oldest manmade fibre. Rayon has been in being for over 100 old ages. Originally devised as a cheaper option to silk. Rayon is a various cloth made from natural substances such as wood mush and works cellulose. The consequence is a semi-synthetic. versatile cloth that carries many of the same features of all natural fibres ( such as silk. wool. cotton and linen ) . Viscose is a favourable cloth due to its soft feel. capacity to absorb wet ( up to 50 % more than cotton ) . and ability to be easy dyed. Viscose. particularly those cloths with all right fibres. curtains wondrous. Rayon can besides defy a higher heat threshold than other man-made or semi-synthetic fibres. Yet. like wool or silk. viscose rayon has really small stableness when moisture. and can lose up to 70 % of its original strength. Consequently. when viscose rayon is saturated. it has the leaning to shrivel ( by every bit much as 10 % ) . every bit good as distort the original form of the garment. This characteristic besides makes it a hapless cloth to keep plaits or a wrinkly visual aspect. Additionally. viscose rayon is a hapless dielectric and is non contributing for pin downing organic structure heat.


    Rayon is a man-made fibre produced from cellulose. Developed in an effort to bring forth silk chemically. it’s originally called unreal silk or wood silk. Rayon is regenerated fiber because cellulose is converted to liquid compound and so back to cellulose in the signifier of fibre.

    The features of rayon fibres are:

    ( a ) They are extremely absorptive

    ( B ) Soft and comfy

    ( degree Celsius ) Easy to dye

    ( vitamin D ) Drape good


    1. Purpose:

    To fix rayon togss from filter documents utilizing cuprammonium procedure

    2. Requirements:

    Beakers. concal flasks. filtration flask vacuity pump. dead set tubing. glass rod. 50 % ammonia solution. dil. NaOH solution. dil. H2SO4. filter paper or waste paper

    3. Theory:

    Natural fibres are the main natural stuff for the readying if rayon. The term rayon include all man-made fibers obtained from cellulose and are used commercially in fiber fabrication. Cellulose can be converted in cupra silk. acetate rayon. Among these. cellulose xanthate rayon is the most common.

    Cellulose is an indissoluble stuff which is foremost converted into a soluble derived function called viscose. The cellulose xanthate is so forced through all right openings into some reagent and the ensuing yarn is kept under tenseness to organize the fibres of required tensile strength. Rayon besides called unreal silk is used for fabrication of cloths like carrying. shirts. saris. etc.


    CuSO4 + 2NH4OH > Cu ( OH ) 2 + ( NH4 ) 2SO4 ( pale blue ppt )

    Cu ( OH ) 2 + 4NH4OH > [ Cu ( NH3 ) 4 ] ( OH ) 2 + 4H2O [ Cu ( NH3 ) 4 ] ( OH ) 2

    5. Procedure:

    The cellulose is dissolved in cuprammonium hydrated oxide [ Cu ( NH3 ) 4 ] ( OH ) 2 and the process to be followed is given below:

    1. To fix cuprammonium hydroxide solution: weigh about 20. 0g of crystalline Cu sulfate in a clean ticker glass. Dissolve it in 100ml of H2O taken in a beaker. Add dil. NaOH solution to this solution easy with stirring and note the separation of precipitate of Cu ( OH ) 2. Filter the precipitate on H2O pump and rinse the precipitate exhaustively with H2O so that a part of filtrate does non bespeak presence of sulphate ions on proving with BaCl2 solution. Now transfer the precipitate to a 250ml beaker and add 50ml of spirits ammonium hydroxide. The precipitate will fade out ensuing in deep bluish solution of cuprammonium hydrated oxide ( Schweitzer’s solution ) . This is the dissolver for fade outing cellulose.

    2. Dissolving the cellulose affair. Weigh about 1 g of ordinary filter paper and cut it into little pieces. Add these pieces to the cuprammonium solution taken in the conelike flask. Close the flask with gum elastic stopper and let it to stand for 3-4 yearss. In this clip. filter paper wholly dissolves go forthing a viscose solution called cellulose xanthate.

    6. Precaution:

    1. Addition of extra NH should be avoided

    2. Before taking the cellulose xanthate in the syringe make sure that it does non incorporate any atoms of paper. otherwise it will choke off the acerate leaf of the syringe.


    1. Chemistry past-2 ( category 12. NCERT )

    2. Wikipedia

    3. Comprehensive chemical science practical

    4. Britannica encyclopaedia

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