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    Chapter 28 The Digestive System

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    Question Answer
    abomasum last section of the ruminant stomach that acts as the true stomach and allows food to be digested
    alimentary canal veterinary medical terminology for the GI system
    amylase enzyme produced by the pancreas that breaks down starches
    anastomosis surgical removal of a dead area of tissue along the digestive tract and resectioning the areas back together
    ascending colon first section of the large intestine
    avian system specialized digestive system of birds
    beak avian mouth with no teeth that forms an upper and lower bill
    bile yellow fluid that helps break down food for digestion and absorption of food
    bloat condition that causes the abdoment to become swollen and painful due to air and gas within the intestinal tract
    body central part of the stomach that expands as food enters
    canine teeth also known as fangs that are used to tear apart food
    cardia entrance of the stomach that filters food
    caniasial tooth upper 4th premolar and lower first molar in dogs and cats that tend to become abscessed and infected
    cecum the small sac that lies between the small and large intestines
    cloaca end of the digestive tracct where waste material passes
    colic condition in horses that causes severe stomach pain
    colon common term for the large intestine
    constipation occurence in the digestive tract that can cause little to no bowel movement
    crop small sac that acts as a holding tank for food as it is passed from the esophagus in birds
    crown the upper part of the tooth that lies above the gum line
    cud mixture of grass sources and saliva that is chewed and regurgitated to break down food for digestions
    deciduous baby teeth that are developed in newborn animals and eventually shed when adulthood is reached
    dehydration loss of fluids in the body
    dentin second layer of teeth, similar to bone
    dentition the way teeth are arranged in the body
    descending colon third or last section of the large intestine
    diabetes condition that is produced when too much or too little blood sugar is produced and the body finds it difficult to regulate
    diarrhea process of waste materials and feces becoming soft and watery
    digestion breaking down food particles into nutrients to be used by the body to allow the animal to live
    digestive system the body sytem that contains the stomach and intestines
    distended swollen
    duodenum short, first section of the small intestines
    enamel hardest substance in the body that covers and protects teeth
    enema procedure of passing fluids into the rectum to soften feces to produce a bowel movement
    eructation gas buildup where belching occurs to rid the rumen of air
    esophagus tube that passes food from the mouth to the stomach
    fermentation process of soaking food that allows bacteria to break down food for easier digestion
    flanking looking at or biting at the sides of the abdomen due to stomach pain
    foreign body obstruction an animal ingests a foreign object that is no digestibe and it becomes impacted within the intestinal tract
    free gas air accumulates in the dorsal rumen of a ruminants stomach causing the animal to choke when the esophagus becomes obstructed with food and saliva, causing the gas to not be able to escape
    frothy bloat caused by gas being trapped within small bubbles within the rumen cxausing the abdoment to become swollen and painful
    fundus opening of the stomach
    gall bladder organ that stores biles
    gastric dilation veterinary term for the condition known as bloat in which air or gas fills the stomach causing the abdomen to become swollen and painful
    gastric dilation volvulus (GDV) condition where the stomach and intestinal tract rotate after becoming swollen due to air or gas in the GI tract, causing the intestinal tracts circulation to be cut off t
    gastrointestinal system (GI) the digestive system that contains the stomach and intestines
    gizzard muscular organ located after the proventriculus in birds that grinds down hard food substances
    glucose veterinary term for blood sugar
    herbivores animals that eat plant based foods
    ileum third and last section of the small intestine
    incisors the front teeth located in the upper and lower jaws
    insulin chemical produced by the liver that is released into the bloodstream and regulates the body's blood sugar
    intravenous into the vein
    intussesception condition where the stomach or intestine telescopes upon itself, cutting off circulation to the organ
    jejunum second or middle section of the small intestine
    Lactated ringers solution fluid of lactic acid that is commonly used to replace fluids lost in dehydration
    laxative veterinary term for stool softeners or medicine given to soften feces to produce a bowel movement
    lipase enzyme produced by the pancreas that breaks down fats
    liver organ behind the stomach that makes bile and produces glucose
    mesentery connective tissue from the peritoneum and carries blood vessels and nerves to the small intestines
    molars last set of teeth that are large and located in the back of the mouth
    monogastric digestive system of an animal with one simple stomach
    mucosa thin connective tissue that lines the intestinal tract
    mucous membrane (mm) gums
    necrotic dead tissue
    nonruminant system digestive system similar to monogastric animals with a larger well developed cecum for breaking down fiber
    normal saline solution with the same concentration level as salt
    NPO nothing by mouth
    omasum third section of the ruminant stomach that absorbed water and nutrients
    omentum thin lining that surrounds organs within the abdomen
    omnivores eats both plants and animals
    oral barium study barium solution given by mouth to pass through the digestive system to allow xrays to be taken over time to view internal structures of the GI tract
    pancreas organ that lies next to the stomach and secretes enzymes that aid in digestion
    papillae hair on the tongue that act as taste buds
    peristalsis wavelike motion of the stomach that moved food through the intestine in contractions
    peritoneum clear thin lining of the abdomen
    permanent adult teeth that are formed after the deciduous teeth are shed
    pharynx throat or area of the back of the mouth
    PO by mouth
    premolars wider teeth at the back of the mouth used to grind and tear food
    proventriculus acts as a monogastric stomach and begins the digestion process in birds by releasing excretions to soften food
    pulp cavity center of the tooth that holds the nerves, veins, and arteries
    pylorus exit passageway of the stomach
    radiopaque solution that fluoresces and allows radioation to pass through to view internal body structures during xrays
    regurgitation process of bringing food into the mouth from the stomach to break it down
    root part of the tooth located below the gum line that holds the tooth in place
    reticulum second section of the ruminant stomach that acts as a filter for food
    rumen first section of the ruminant stomach that acts as a storage vat and softens food for fermentation
    rugae folds within the stomach when it is empty
    ruminant animal with a digestive system that has a stomach with four sections or compartments
    saliva fluid that helps soften and break down food for ease of swallowing and digestion
    salivary glands area within the mouth that produces saliva
    skin turgor process of evaluating an animal for dehydration by lifting the skin over the base of the neck or shoulder blades
    sodium chloride saltwater fluid
    stool softeners medication given to produce a bowel movement by softening the fecces
    subcutaneous given under the skin
    tacky slight dry, as in the gums
    tongue muscle within the mouth used to hold food within the mouth
    transverse colon second or middle section of the large intestine
    trocar plastic or metal pointed instrument placed into the rumen of the ruminant animal that has bloated to relieve the pressue on the animal's stomach
    trypsin enzyme produced by the pancreas that digests proteins
    vent external area of an avian that passes waste materials, also called the cloaca and similar to the rectum
    vomiting process of brining up partially or undigested food that has been in the stomach of monogastric animals

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