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    Chapter 15 World History

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    Renaissance
    “rebirth”; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
    Humanism
    an intellectual movement during the Renaissance that focused on the study of worldly subjects, such as poetry and philosophy, and on human potential and achievements
    Secular
    having to do with worldly, as opposed to religious, matters
    Baldassare Castiglione
    Italian diplomat and writer, he wrote the Courtier. This book includes the rules to get a king to favor you
    Niccolo Machiavelli
    Italian political philosopher and statesman, he wrote The prince which advised rulers to separate morals and politics
    Lorenzo de Medici
    Florentine ruler who supported the artists, best known for his liberal mind
    Perspective
    A technique renaissance artists used in order to realistically paint the natural world.
    Leonardo da Vinci
    A very famous painter who was best known for the Mona Lisa
    Michelangelo Buonarrot
    A very famous artist in Florence who painted the ceiling of a chapel
    Raphael
    Another very famous painter who painted the School of Athens
    Johannes Gutenberg
    Created the movable type printing press
    Desiderius Eramus
    Priest and Humanist who said people needed to live a simple christian life
    Sir Thomas More
    Writer who wrote Utopia which was about the perfect society
    William Shakespeare
    Dramatist and poet who wrote, hamlet, Romeo and Juliet
    Albrecht Durer
    German painter who combined renaissance style art with realism and perspective
    Christine de Pisan
    French poet and author who wrote The City of Women which taught about roles of women in society
    Jan Van Eyck
    Flemish painter who focused on landscape and domestic life
    Prostestant Reformation
    The religious movement in the 1500’s that split the church in western Europe and led to the establishment of new churches
    Indulgences
    Pardons released by the pope that could reduce one’s time in purgatory
    Martin Luther
    German Monk who opposed the church, posted the 95 theses and led the reformation
    Theocracy
    a government ruled by religious leaders who claim God’s authority
    John Calvin
    French protestant who founded Calvinism
    Predestination
    The belief that at the beginning of time God decided who would be salvaged
    Henry VIII
    he wanted a divorce from his wife which angered the pope so he embraced Protestantism
    Annulled
    To end a marriage, and claim it isn’t valid anymore
    Elizabeth I
    Queen of England who restated protestant in England
    Counter Reformation
    The Catholic churches’ series of reforms in response to the spread of Protestantism
    Girolamo Savonarola
    Monk known for his prophecies of civic glory
    Jesuits
    Members of the society of Jesus
    Ignatius Loyola
    Churchman and founder of the Jesuits
    Council of Trent
    Meeting of the church leaders in the 1500’s who’s purpose to clearly define Catholic doctrines for the Catholic reformation
    Charles Borromeo
    took steps to implement the reforms ordered by the council of Trent
    Francis of Sales
    Catholic leader and preacher he worked to win back the district of Savory in France from Calvinism
    Teresa of Avila
    Spanish carmelite nun and one of the main saints of the Roman Catholic church she reformed carmelite order
    Why was Italy the focus of the Renaissance?
    Because that was where the new ideas were coming from
    How did Humanism contrast with that of the Church teaching
    They emphasized individual achievement instead of group achievement like the church did
    How does Secular writing differ from religious writing
    Writing that focused on worldly things rather than spiritual things
    How is the use of perspective a type of realism
    Perspective helps artist artists realistically paint the world
    How do renaissance works display a change in attitudes
    They started painting Greek and roman scenes as well a religious figures which was different from the middle ages
    How did science evolve during the Renaissance
    They started questioning the Church and people said the earth wasn’t the center of the universe, but instead the sun was.
    Describe the masters that emerged during the Renaissance
    The masters were Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, both were skilled artists.
    How might the new ideas of the Renaissance affect society
    People started questioning the church which made society change
    How were Renaissance artists funded
    By patrons of the art who funded them, and they also made money selling their art
    How did Machiavelli’s The Prince reflect humanist and Renaissance ways of thinking
    It showed that people had to be punished for doing wrong, and had to be punished to be kept in line
    How did the Black Death, starvation, and warfare change Europe in the 1300’s?
    It decreased the population in Europe which caused there to be less demand for food so people could work on different things like art and writing.
    Name the city-states the emerged in Italy during the 1300’s
    Venice, Milan, Florence
    How did society and cities change during the 1300’s
    Venice focused on sea trade
    Milan focused on agriculture, silk, and weapons
    Florence focused on banking and cloth
    How did the Renaissance ideas spread to Northern Europe?
    Trade, and Italian artists fleeing to Northern Europe
    How did the Hanseatic League help spread the ideas of the Renaissance
    Traders brought goods to northern Europe and spread Renaissance ideas there
    What impact did the printing press have on the Northern Renaissance
    It let people read ideas that came from the Renaissance which quickly spread those ideas in Northern Europe
    Was the printing press or trade network more important in spreading Renaissance ideas?
    Trade network because without it the ideas wouldn’t have been brought to Northern Europe
    How did Northern artists adapt Italian techniques to their own subject matter
    They painted with perspective and painted people like Italian artists
    Describe the characteristics of Renaissance writer’s work
    Dramatic stories that had a theme. They were very dramatic and u sally had something to do with renaissance ideas
    How did Northern Renaissance artwork differ from that of Italian artists?
    The Northern artists tried to paint people as they really were, but Italian artists drew gods, Greek culture. In the North they were more realistic
    Explain the circumstances that led to the Protestant Reformation.
    Martin Luther posted the 95 theses that were against the church
    Describe the ideas of Martin Luther and how they contradicted the church’s teachings of his day
    He said that selling indulgences was sinful but the church disagreed
    How did the ideas of reformers who came after Luther differ from those of Luther
    They thought the churches had theocracy at their base
    Why was King Henry VIII a key figure of the Reformation
    Becuase he went agiasnts the church and married many times
    What caused the Reformation to spread to England
    Henry VIII made Protestantism the main religion in England
    Based on the response to Henry VIII’s break with Rome, what was likely to be the relationship between the church and England? Explain your answer.
    The church and England are very separate because Henry VIIII went against the church and he became the head of the church
    What methods did the Catholic Church use to stop the Spread of Protestantism?
    They banned people, like Martin Luther, who opposed the church
    What factors led to the Peasants’ War
    Martin Luther’s 95 theses, and they wanted to do the same type of things a Luther
    How did the Peace of Augsburg encourage religious toleration
    It allowed for state choice of religion
    How did Luther’s reaction to the Peasants’ War affect the Counter-Reformation?
    This made him a good figure in the eyes of the northern European monarchs

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