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    CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION SYNOPSIS Road system of a developing nation has an interesting part to play for a nation`s growth

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    CHAPTER – 1
    Road system of a developing nation has an interesting part to play for a nation`s growth & development. Transportation through road framework satisfies the alluring needs of road users. India has the 2nd largest road network athwart the world of an estimated 5.4 million km. This road network transports around 65 percent of all freights in the nation and 86 percent of India’s total commuter traffic. The road traffic is assessed to develop at a yearly rate of 8-11 percent, while the vehicle population is mounting at a rate of 14 per cent per year. Road transportation has dynamically expanded throughout the years with the upgrade in connectivity between cities, towns and villages in the country. Road transport in India is very well-liked for various reasons; but the conditions of the Indian roads are very poor and appalling. Over the years, the rate of road mishaps and fatality is very high in the country. Pressure on roads and the quantity of vehicles is expanding significantly. In any case, there appears to be no comparative increment in outlay for the roads in Five Year Plans rather it has declined. Absence of road sense has likewise added complications to the matter. Driving licenses are given on illicit delights by the authorities; Traffic rules ; principles are never dealt with. Overloading is one of the key variables of road-accidents and casualties. The condition of the vehicles is barely found road-worthy. The unmanned rail road level intersection further adds to the bedlam ; perplexity. Drug-abuse and addiction by drivers is another major cause of road-accidents. The exceptionally increasing use of mobile phones has posed a new challenge to road safety. Immediate and effective steps ought to be taken to check the ever increasing number of road accidents and deaths. Some very hard decisions in the issue are the need of great importance.

    Roads in India are a well-liked means for both traveller and merchandise development. It provides a ton of adaptability, comfort, speed and unwavering quality of travel in urban areas and towns. Consequently, it’s the pre-eminent favoured medium of transportation. However, Indian roads in urban & rural areas are in an extremely poor condition. Their advancement and maintenance have not kept pace with the development in transport populace. Consequently, there are road mishaps, serious injuries and losses all around. Indian streets are red with human blood. The rate of road mishaps and following misfortune in man and material in India is one of the highest.

    Within the first road plan, the expense was 6.9 percent of total country`s expenditure that declined to 3 percent by the Eighth road plan. The disregard and poor maintenance of Indian roads have made the street travel terribly venturous.

    The lack of road sense by the drivers and different users of the road have additionally muddled the issues. It is an open mystery that people get drivers licenses while not knowing correct driving or the knowledge of the traffic rules. Lane-discipline is missing; road-safety measures are tossed to the breezes; drivers, notably the youth zigzag on the streets and also the traffic police remains a silent spectator. Red-light is regularly hopped altogether inside the early and late hours of the day.
    Over-speeding and violating the prescribed limit as far as possible are also there in abundance, there’s hardly any round-about discipline. The motorists usually don’t acknowledge that the vehicles on the right ought to be allowed to manoeuvre first. The tendency to overtake is additionally accountable for several road accidents.
    Over-loading of travellers and goods is greatly regular which is one among the primary elements of road accidents and deaths on the road. City buses are the worst offenders in this respect. They are invariably overcrowded and full. In cities and villages also, individuals are often seen sitting on the roof-tops of the buses.
    Like the roads, the condition of the vehicles is also a source of nice worry. They are terribly old, unsteady and unworthy of utilization and still they’re running on the Indian streets to the great threat of road users and others. It is measurable that 50 for every penny of the vehicles on the streets don’t seem to be road-worthy. Overloading and employing of substandard vehicles cause the speedy deterioration of roads besides accidents which can prove fatal. Then, there are unmanned level-crossings across the railway lines, many folks in India die in such accidents.

    All these factors have created driving on Indian roads a nightmare. Daily newspapers are red with the everyday reports of deadly street mischances. There is no participation and coordination between different organizations and specialists involved with the regulation of road traffic, construction & maintenance of roads and those conceding licenses to the drivers and enrolment to the vehicles. The roads within the cities are typically closely-held and taken care of by multiple agencies that produce confusion.

    The quality of the roads is sub-standard. They are usually packed with potholes, harsh and uneven stretches. In rainy season, their conditions become the worst. The absence of legitimate street lights, signs and conjointly contributes their portion of the road hazards. The pavements on both sides of the road don’t seem to be free from encroachments. There are outlets, khokas, dhabas, workshops etc. on the pavements meant for pedestrians. Street-drainage further augments the matter of accidents.

    Addiction and drug-abuse is another space of concern. The drivers of numerous sorts of vehicles are discovered driving in the wake of taking drugs or liquor. Those driving underneath the influence of drugs and alcohol ought to be given exemplary punishment and their licenses should be cancelled off. There should be significant fines moreover besides imprisonment.

    The increased use of cell phones is additionally a component that represents a test to road safety. This prompts loss of control of the vehicle leading to road accidents.

    To prevent these accidents, it’s imperative that effective long and short term measures are immediately taken. Road safety should be a mandatory study. Streets should be appropriately kept up and dealt with. There ought to be multi-path streets wherever important. There ought to be separate tracks for moderate moving vehicles from those of speedy and to a great degree quick paced vehicles. There ought to be a powerful check on speed of the vehicles. Radar guns can be utilized to check the speed. Violation of traffic rules should be strictly treated.

    People should be motivated to utilize public transportation system, can also likewise pool autos, cars thus avoiding road congestion. There ought to be extremely strict guidelines in regard to issue of driving licenses and enrolment of vehicles. Most importantly, there ought to be right mindfulness among the majority with respect to road safety, observation of traffic rules and furthermore the best possible utilization of the roads and national highways.

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