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    Biology 155 Chap 4-6

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    Which of the following help direct the movement of materials or organelles throughout the cell?
    rough endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeleton, smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    Which of the following organelles is found uniquely in autotrophic, eukaryotic cells and not heterotrophic, eukaryotic cells?
    chloroplast
    After proteins are formed by the ribosomes located on the endoplasmic reticulum, what is the next organelle to which they could be transported?
    Golgi Apparatus
    Which is NOT true about the cell theory?
    It states that bacteria and other small organisms can arise spontaneously
    As they flow over rotten logs as a fluid sheet, slime molds appear to lack any partitioning into individual cells; however, slime molds do become cellular when they change form to produce spores. The surface of some parasitic flatworms and some insect tissues are a “syncytium” or layer of living material that contains many nuclei and cell organelles but lacks partitioning by cell membranes. These tissues consume food and produce wastes. In light of the cell theory that “all living things are composed of cells,” then
    the general concept of life-is-cellular still holds because these organisms are cellular at specific stages in their life cycle, but this shows that cell membrane partitions can be abandoned.
    Which of the following gives rise to both lysosomes and vesicles?
    Golgi apparatus
    Which of the following features is unique to bacterial cells?
    nucleoid region
    Which of the following features is NOT found in a bacterial cell?
    nucleus
    Which statement is NOT true about bacteria?
    Bacteria contain membrane bound organelles
    Which statement is NOT true about bacterial anatomy?
    The glycocalyx sheath is located inside the cell wall.
    An amino sugar called N-acetylmuramic acid is an important building block of the cell wall of some bacteria. Penicillin prevents this amino sugar from being incorporated into the bacterial cell wall. Therefore,
    All of the choices are correct. It is true that penicillin affects bacteria but not eukaryotes because eukaryotic cell walls are different, bacterial cells that had already formed their cell walls would be unaffected and that penicillin would stop the growth of active colonies of susceptible bacteria.
    Most bacteria live in a solution that is hypotonic relative to the cytoplasm of the bacteria. The cell wall of a bacterium is a peptidoglycan polymer that is tightly cross-linked. This would therefore function to
    provide a rigid wall that prevents the cell from swelling.
    Which is NOT true of eukaryotic cells?
    They contain ribosomes that are smaller than those of prokaryotic cells.
    According to the endosymbiosis theory _______ were engulfed by larger eukaryotic cells
    mitochondria
    Which of the following is NOT offered as evidence in support of the endosymbiotic theory, the belief that a eukaryotic cell has evolved as a “committee” of prokaryotic cells?
    Mitochondria and chloroplasts can actively break away from eukaryotic cells and live on their own.
    Which is a true statement about ribosomes?
    Ribosomal subunits leave the nucleus after being formed by the nucleolus.
    Chloroplasts are to ____________ as ___________ are to aerobic respiration.
    photosynthesis, mitochondria
    _______ are to ribosomes as lipids are to _________.
    Proteins; smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    Without a cytoskeleton, eukaryotic cells would NOT
    have an efficient way to transport materials from one organelle to another
    Mitochondria have an inner membrane system called thylakoid membranes.
    False
    All cells have a cell wall that regulates the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
    False
    Mitochondria are thought to be derived from aerobic bacteria that became part of the eukaryotic cell through endosymbiosis.
    True
    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are able to reproduce independently from the division of the cell.
    True
    Which of these is NOT part of the endomembrane system of the cell?
    mitochondria
    Membrane-bounded vesicles that contain enzymes for oxidizing small organic molecules with the formation of hydrogen peroxide are
    peroxisomes
    Which is NOT a characteristic of mitochondria
    Mitochondria have a single membrane for cellular respiration.
    Which cytoskeletal element is NOT correctly associated with its characteristic?
    Centrioles are found in the microtubule organizing centers of plants.
    The cells that line our respiratory tract, and one-celled paramecia both have these short hair-like projections.
    cilia
    The springtail is a very common small insect that lives in rotten logs, rich soil, and other humid places. Its cuticle is water repelling (hydrophobic) except for a strange organ, the collophore, on its ventral side. Because it lacks the excretory organs of other insects, the springtail has this organ in contact with the water (it is responsible for ion balance and secretion of wastes). If we examined the cell structure of this collophore, we would expect to find a high number of
    Golgi bodies
    Each time the water in a cell freezes slowly, long sharp crystals spear through the membrane structures of the cell. However, in the frozen state, virtually no chemical reactions occur. The most likely explanation for the bad taste of meat that has “freezer burn” from repeated freezing is the destruction of
    lysosomes and resultant autodigestion
    Which of the following gives rise to both lysosomes and vesicles?
    Golgi apparatus
    All cells have these two characteristics:
    have a plasma membrane and ribosomes in the cytoplasm
    Cell biologists have introduced radioactively labeled carbohydrates, fats and amino acids to living cells, allowed time for cell metabolism, and then disrupted the cells in a blender and separated out the various cell organelles from the cytoplasm. They found the radioactive molecules could soon be detected as part of various cellular compounds, although the visible cell structures appeared unchanged. This leads us to conclude that
    most cell components are constantly being broken down and rebuilt.
    From your knowledge of the size and density of cell components and the process of centrifugation, predict the order (from first to last) that the nucleus and various cell organelles will be extracted?
    nucleus-mitochondria and chloroplasts-ribosomes-soluble cytoplasm
    Why is a large surface area: volume ratio needed for cells to function properly?
    Adequate surface area (plasma membrane) is needed to furnish nutrients to and expel wastes from the volume (cytoplasm)
    The plant cell’s central vacuole
    The plant cell’s central vacuole provides the plant cell with support, stores nutrients and cellular waste products, and is a reservoir for water. All of the choices are correct.
    Of the following, which is NOT associated with the mitochondria?
    stroma
    A multicellular organism like a rabbit will be
    Composed of a variety of different cell types.
    What cellular organelle is responsible for receiving the mRNA and turning it into a protein
    ribosome
    Which statement about the nucleus is incorrect?
    The nucleus contains the information that ribosomes use to carry out cellular respiration.
    Which cellular organelle is the most prominent
    nucleus
    During the sequencing of DNA into a protein, what is the first step
    mRNA is copied from a gene
    DNA is housed within the nucleus, but the mRNA code needs to leave in order to be translated into a protein. How does the mRNA code leave the nucleus if the nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear envelope?
    The nuclear envelope contains pores that allow the mRNA to exit through.
    What structures enable the vesicles from the Golgi apparatus to fuse with the cell membrane?
    phospholipids
    Which organelle is primarily responsible for the breakdown of lipids within the cell
    peroxisome
    Which of the following products can be found in vacuoles?
    water, sugars, water-soluble pigments
    If a researcher was interested in slowing down the movement of amoebas by disrupting their cell membranes, which protein filaments should she be studying?
    actin
    During cellular movement which of the following filaments will be the ones that are responsible for attaching and pulling the other filaments along
    myosin
    What are the potential consequences of a genetic disorder that prevents an individual from properly forming microtubules?
    Their cells will not be able to maintain the normal cellular shape.

    The cells may not be able to divide correctly during cellular division.

    The cilia located on the respiratory cells may have a limited function.

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