Within this report have looked more closely to the arts and culture sector, also I have visited several different companies vitamin the different leisure sectors. I feel that this has been a good learning experience, since it has enabled me to broaden my expertise Within these sectors, and especially the arts and culture sector. This Report is part of the module Introduction to Leisure, which focuses on the basic knowledge Of the leisure industry. Beforehand we received loads of warnings about the high workload, which this report required. Experienced that these warnings were given with reason.
However, I do feel that the writing of this report has been a good learning experience and that it will be helpful to our further education within this programmer. Moreover, due to proper planning, the report was finished long before the deadline. This report has given me insight in the basics of the leisure industry and has helped me to broaden my mind with regard to this education. Would like to thank Ms Van deer Hoover for her help during the writing of this report as well as the employees of Standee University’s library personnel for helping us to find reliable sources.
Moreover, I would like to thank the HEM and n particular, MS van Omen for providing necessary data, Introduction: This study is based on one of the five sectors within the Leisure Industry. A student makes the report within the first year Of Standee University’s International Leisure Management course. Within this report, several different aspects Will be considered. Within the first chapter a definition as well as an explanation of the entire leisure branch will be given, this by defining all five leisure sectors and strengthening these definitions With use Of exemplary companies.
The second chapter within this report Will include in-depth analyses f a chosen sector, namely the Arts and Culture sector. Within this analysis, several aspects will be covered. Information that will be given includes but is not limited to the number of visitors in this given sector, the expenses made within the sector, several different market data, trends and developments and several different policies. Lastly, this part will include a short description of two sub- sectors of the arts and culture sector, The third and last chapter will be covering a field research.
It offers several different facilities, products and services. According to page and Connell (2010), leisure can be defined in three different ways. Firstly, leisure can be looked at as leisure as a period, or focused on an activity or even a state of mind. The second way in which leisure can be defined is in an objective sense, in that way; leisure is defined as the opposite of work or even, when all other obligations are fulfilled, Thirdly and lastly Page and Connell described a subjective manner in which there can be seen as leisure which is a qualitative notion.
This last way is focused on the perception of an individual with regard to leisure time. When and only when it is perceived by an individual as enjoying leisure time, it can be called leisure mime. In this current day and age, individuals are considered more eager to spend 3 substantial amount Of money on their leisure activities, since the free time Of those individuals is decreasing due to globalization and increasing workload (Hayward, 2002). Since leisure time can be defined as the perception of an individual, several different leisure activities can be distinguished.
These activities can be assembled in five different leisure sectors. For the following sectors a short description Will be given: The Sports sector, The Tourism sector, the Recreation sector, and the Media sector. For the Arts and Culture sector a wide and in depth analysis will be given. The Sports Sector: According to the council of Europe (n. D,), the sports sector can be defined as all torts of physical activities which, through either casual of organized engagement, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and well-being, creating social interaction, or obtaining competitive results at every level (Territories, 2005).
Therefore, with regard to the sports sector, all companies that enable participating in the activity of sports are included. Because of this wide anger of companies, the sports sector can be defined as very varied and diverse. It is used for not only leisure activities but also for competitive based sports activities. A higher awareness of the benefits and importance of sports can be observed among the population, hence the demand for sports activities has been boosted rapidly over the past few years.
Whether an individual sport by going to the gym, playing team sports Or individual swimming, sport has become a more substantial part of people’s lives. Moreover, a wide range of products and services as well as several career opportunities are Offered by the sports sector. If an individual is asked to think of the sports sector, sports on an individual basis is thought Of often. Nevertheless, several Other possibilities are available to be engaged in, in this sector. Beside the individuals participating in the sport itself, there are many other roles to be fulfilled within this sector.
The roles of trainers, physiotherapists, and nutritionists are included in this case (Sinker & Barker 2010). De Workout Utrecht and the company visited in the fielder, namely Sport Boulevard Ensconced can be regarded examples of companies within this sector. The Recreation Sector: Recreation is considered to be state to mind, by which a human is provided the feeling of fulfillment and satisfaction. It is defined by feelings of expertise, achievement, excitement, understanding and personal value, and enjoyment. A positive image of oneself is contributed to by recreation. -Rutherford, it is seen as elite enhancing and a positive response to good experiences, personal achievements, or positive feedback from peers. Moreover, recreational activities are characterized by the tact that they are freely chosen and therefore not mandatory (Territories, 2005). Recreation is considered the ‘light version’ of this industry. Contrary to the other sectors, relaxation and therefore casual leisure are the main issues focused on by this industry (Hayward, 2002). Due to this fact, the recreation sector can be regarded to as one of the most popular sectors Within the leisure industry.
Within this sector, several different kinds of companies can be found. These can include but are not limited to drinking establishments, restaurants, multiplex cinemas, bowling allies, and casinos. Holland Casino (nationwide), as well as Restaurant De Liberia (Swollen) and De Grope Jerkier (Learned) can be named as examples within this sector. The media sector: Media can also be defined as one of the leisure sectors. Different forms of media can be distinguished, for instance Internet platforms on which users can participate in discussions about art, related to the media.
On these websites, users can interact with others and find new information about art (Jenkins & Epigram, 2003). Many more examples can be given for the media sectors. Comics, photography, books, newspapers, magazines, radio, Television, can be considered Media (Liberalize & Cobble, 2010). In this current time, the media as gone through tremendous evolutions Initially approximately 2000 years BOO, writing had become a way of communication. Thus, the alphabet had been created. The alphabet was first implemented in Egypt, after this it has been implemented in Europe in the Middle Ages.
The printing press has been the following evolution within the media industry. Prom approximately CISCO onwards, the renaissance had been coming into existence. Within this time printed press had Start to become increasingly important. From 1870 until 1950, this revolution had started to include telegraphy, photos, films, radio, and finally television. Distillation has been the last evolution in the Media sector. Because of the digitizing of many products and media-outlets, the media sector had been increasing rapidly in size.
In 1993, the World Wide Web had come into existence; this has made media available for many more people within a shorter time. Because of this, people have started interacting differently and faster than ever (Watson, 2008). Many theories have been made of the power and influence of the media. Four theories about this subject have been made by Murphy (1985). The following statement has been included in the first theory: ” The influence of the media an directly insert opinions and influences within the minds and perceptions of the receiver”.
A following theory that was made is the agenda setting theory. In this theory there has been stated that media does not have an influence on the opinion of the receiving person: however there has been stated that it influences the conversational topics of those whom receive the information, The following can be stated as an example in practice of this theory. The radio was turned on by a family; there has been stated that a dangerous couple is on the loose, by the news anchor.
The conversational topic of the above-mentioned family has been changed because of that statement Throughout the conversation, opinions about the subject have been formed by the receivers. According to this example, the media has had an influence on the conversational topic and has led to opinions being formed; the media therefore has no direct influence on opinions Of people (Protractor & Gutenberg, 2010). Donald Duck, De Voluntary, and Fox Sports Underlined are examples of companies that can be considered Media. Tourism Sector Many definitions and theories have been made in order to explain the tourism sector.
However, the definition that has most commonly been used is the one from World Tourism Organization, which has stated the following: The activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four hours for leisure, business and other purposes,” (Page & Connell, 201 0) The WTFO (1995) has also defined a set of criteria that an individual requires to be a tourist: C The individual has to be away from home tort at least 24 hours; [l The individual cannot be away from home for longer than one year, otherwise students studying abroad would be tourists as well,’
The individual has to be at least 80 kilometers away from his or her usual environment; 0 Business trips and traveling for medical or religious reasons is not seen as tourism; When one of the above-mentioned requirements has not been met, this individual cannot be defined as tourist, moreover traveling migrants, diplomats, armed forces on military assignments and commuters cannot be considered as tourists. TAXI, Cordoned and D-Resize can be considerate to be examples of companies within this sector. Arts and Culture Sector: Finally, the arts and culture sector can be named as one of the leisure sectors.
According to Hayward (2002), this sector can involve a wide range of leisure activities, in-house as well as Outside Of one’s residence. The in-house activities can entail listening to music recordings as well as reading written novels. The leisure activities that can be done outside Of the residences include visiting art galleries, going to a theatre, exhibitions and concerts. The focus of this sector is to make arts and different cultural events available for different groups Of people. People are becoming more willing and interested in other cultures and arts.
Moreover, arts and culture is more accessible and therefore easily shared. In the following chapters, the Arts and Culture sector is further analyses and described. The report is focused on several factors, including economics, the amount of visitors and trends within this sector, Sector: Arts and Culture According to Wooziness (2002), the arts and culture sector can be defined as a large, heterogeneous set of individuals or organizations engaged in the creation, production, presentation, distribution and preservation of, and education about aesthetics, heritage and entertainment activities, products and artifacts (Carpenter, 2012).
Thus, this sector is a very broad and vivid sector. In order to give a detailed but concise explanation of the arts and culture sector, the report is focused on three sub-sectors, namely theatre, museum, festivals and music. Number Of visitors/participants: When looking at the number of participants within the arts and culture sector, it is important to define how many people are involved in a specific activity Within the sector as well as defining where the activity takes place (Carpenter, 2012).
This part Of the report is focused solely on the amount Of people enjoying and visiting this sector. In further parts of the report the people producing within the sector are further enlightened. Theatre: Within the theatre sector, several different performances can be defined. The areas that are used for this report are musical performances and dance performances within the Netherlands. As shown in figure one, the amount of visitors in the Musical sector have been consistent for the past two years, However, in 2010 there had been a slight decline in visitor rate.
An explanation tort this decline is that might be influenced by the economic crisis within the Netherlands. From 2010 Lentil 2011 the prices of the visits have been slightly lowered which is shown directly in the increase in suitors. Another influence is the Broadway shows, these shows are becoming more popular and this results in a Figure I: Visitors Musical sector over time higher visitor rate. According to the Dutch minister of COW (2013), there has been a significant increase for visits to the musicals outside of the Netherlands.
This can be an explanation for the consistency of the visitors rate within the Netherlands, although the Broadway shows and other influences still increase the popularity of the theatre branch, this internationalization of the branch causes the Dutch branch to Stay consistent (Dick & Merit 2007). Currently the amount of visitors within the theatre branch is 446,817 visits (Minister OCW, 2013) Dance: Figure 2: Visits dance performances over time As shown in figure 2, the dance performance branch within the Netherlands is slightly declining.
Causes of this decline are possibly the fact that dance performances are not the first choice of theatre visitors (van Mean, 2009), Another explanation for the decline in the period from 2011 to 2012 is the limiting of the funds in the arts and culture sector, this causes dance studios to merge with other companies within the sector, which causes the amount of visitors to be suggested in another part of the sector. The current amount of visits of the dance performances is 285, 781 (Minister van OCW, 2013). Figure 3: Museum visitors over time The museum sector is a vivid and elaborate sector.
In figure 3, the change in participation overtime is illustrated. As is showed, there has been an increase in visitors from 2009 until 2011; there are several ways to explain this change. Firstly, a possibility of the increase is the obsolescence, According to Broke (2010), the age of a person has a strong influence on what kind of cultural expression he or she prefers to visit, The different generations are differently socialized culturally. This entails that the cultural preference one has during his youth often stays the same when that person gets older.
The generations that are often interested in visiting the museums are the baby boom generation and the ones before that; this can explain the increase in the visitors rate since this generation was around 65 years old at that time. Since this was the retirement age, this generation had more spare time to enjoy their leisure. In 2012 the retirement age was raised with 2 years to 67, this explains the small decline in the visitors rate. Currently the amount of visitors is 291,872 (Minister of OCW, 2013). Festivals: Within the festival branch, a distinction can be made vitamin the different types of festivals, highbrow, lowbrow and middlebrow.
Highbrow: Highbrow cultural activities embody segment voting the broad range of cultural participation. Nevertheless, this segment is a highly important one; in spite Of the fact that many highbrow activities are the least frequently done, highbrow activities are often educational and are opening possibilities Within several areas (Hartmann & Kop, 2001). According to Broodier (1 990), although this art of culture is often considered as snobby or only for higher classes, it can be a predictor of success in school and work for the middle class. Within the Festival branch in the Netherlands, there are several highbrow festivals.
These festivals are often characterized by theatre related activities and art-house films. Examples of festivals within this area are Errol, Netherlands Film Festival and World press photo, Within this part of the festival branch, the amount of visitors is estimated at 1 ,432, 139 visitors per year. In table 1 the structure of the highbrow festival industry is illustrated. As shown in table 1, the main aspect of the highbrow festivals is Film, According to Broke (2003), the sequential generations have an increasing interest in popular culture, namely popular music, cabaret, and film.
This also explains the high participation of performing arts, since this often exists of either music or cabaret. Kind Of festival Performing arts Fine arts Architecture Literature Total Amount of Visitors 499903 percentage of branch 100866 683487 133694 14189 1432139 100% Table 1: Visitor participation Festivals highbrow Middlebrow: Obviously, middlebrow is the intermediate of the definitions of high-and borrow. It is both a description to easily accessible art, literature, and culture.
It is also named rather than purely experience art for an intrinsic value, the middlebrow participants participate in that what they are told to be the best in that field (Wolf 1 942), The main focus of this “brow” is to obtain highbrow quality culture and arts but with the effort of the lowbrow sector. Examples of middlebrow festivals are Lowlands, Down the Rabbit Hole and Secret Garden. The amount of visitors has been collected by VPN-Podia. This study includes both festivals as well as visits to concert The total amount is . 34 million visitors in 2012.
Moreover, this research focused on the change for visitors from 2011 to 2012. This change was measured by a survey for both the owners of the concert venues as well as the owners of festival organizers. 65% of the chosen venues responded. Outcomes within this research were that 47% of the shrapnel had an increase for visitors from the period from 2011 to 2012; moreover, 62% responded that the economic crisis had an effect on the sector. The main effects were the following: 1. Concert venues are taking less risk in programming 2. Concert venues program less.