The analysis of the stakeholder management process forms a very integral role in bringing up the expertise and under playing the strategies of carefully managing the stakeholders accordingly to their power and legitimacy.
The different templates are used in bringing up the analysis of the process so as to technically prove the inference that these external bodies brought onto the project. The following are the different templates that establishes the role of the stakeholders more prominently and are very necessary and basic for the analysis phase of the project. POWERThus the power interest matrix shows the different entities and places them according to their effectiveness on the project and at what extent they can influence the project are given numeric value approximately to depict the same. CONFLICTS OF KEY STAKEHOLDERS:The stake holders of the expressway had raised quite some issues that made the project conflicting enough for the stake holders to affect the project and even cease the progress of the project. The key issues are mentioned which were consequently resolved by the MSRDC and are enlisted below:1. The people of 140 villages along the route of the expressway expressed their concern for the privatization of the expressway.
2. Farmers of the villages claimed that compensations were not paid by the authorities for over their land who had given them for facilitation of the project. 3. MSRTC which runs 800 buses over the NH4 route also showed its opposition strongly for the project development4.
Transportation associations and many small scale associations like local industries Pimpri – Chinchwad industries associations, Nagar road industries Chamber of Commerce and agriculture and other committees showed their displeasure over the project for imposition of toll which would affect the viability of their operations. 5. BEAG (Bombay Environmental Action Group) also had raised a fundamental rationale to raise toll on NH4. 6. The terrain of the slopes was so loose that gave a chance of falling on to the expressway that made the technical team to mitigate and great challenge to design. 7.
Economic issues caused the internal stakeholders of the project for the decision of privatization (BOT) or manage it by themselves that raised much of a conflict within the project team. STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT:The Stakeholder management was planned and executed well that the project did not suffer any major losses with respect to time, cost and quality. All the key Stakeholders were identified at the right time and managed them appropriately. Though the process doesn’t seem so obvious the net result explains the efforts put forth by the professionals.
The associations like Pimpri Chinchwad and Nagar development associations imposed strongly on the ban of the project as they had a direct hit on their operation of the project by levying the toll for the expressway. Hurdles does arise like farmers not selling their lands and environmental organizations protesting for the forest creatures and so on but was effectively managed and solved so as to avoid even the negligent and less legitimate stakeholders who might hinder the smooth going process of the project of any kind. MSRTC also did not fail to take stand o the stopping of the project as its regular route of NH4 carried 800 buses per day. BEAG also condemned the MSRDC for levying toll on the public for its usage which according to them was very offensive and demanded a remedy for the people alongside the project.
Proper analysis of the project lead to the appropriate dealing of the stake holder be it for changing the alignment of the road because of the refusal of the villagers to sell their land or the protest of the environmentalists opposing the project for violating the laws and affecting the balance of flora and fauna. Thus the Stakeholder analysis of Mumbai – Pune expressway showed a good example for better analysis of stakeholders and successful delivery of the project which had equal hindrances like the other large scale government funded project serving a better cause with unlimited stakeholders and complexity. RISK MANAGEMENT:The Risk Management part was carried out during pre design stages and was executed well in order to mitigate and manage the risks encountered by the project. Risks for each stage was identified and recorded in the Risk Register that was created for this sake. Every agency formulated the risk mitigation strategies by identifying the ownership of risks.
Work was done to create new strategies in case of any new threat and founded risks that helped the team achieve success in risk management. Some of the risks identified under MSRDC ownership were:1. Land acquisition2. Specific project clearances3.
Political risk4. Non-insurable Force Majeure risks5. Water & Power Availability at sourceRISK MITIGATION MEASURES:The risk mitigation team (MSRDC) clearly classified different measures as the strategies and they are as given below:1. Distinct consultants were appointed for different engineering and supervision work of the construction2.
Strong will prevailed politically3. MSRDC facilitated setting up of 8 substations through Maharashtra State ElectricityBoard (MSEB) at suitable locations. 4. All the clearances and acquisitions were obtained prior to the start of the project. 5. Utility services lines were crafted on time (power, telephone, sewer, water)6.
EIA was carried by an external agency for mitigation of impacts due to environmental factors and their adverse effects were found at an earlier stage. 7. Survey instruments and laboratory testing equipments were procured by contractors by MSRDC. 8. Oil companies were prompted to set up adjacent to the alignment of the expressway by MSRDC. PRIVATE CONSULTANTS ‘ MEASURES:Even the private consultants contributed to the risk mitigation measures having their limitations over the project yet came up with good measures.
Be it RITES or other private consultants the feasibility of the project was done to perfection which resulted on the management of the project especially when it comes to financial and economical criteria. Not only budget wise but also technically the design and risk management team played a very important role in stage wise scheduling and completion of the same. Some of the important risks borne by them are elaborated below:1. Design2. Construction3. Operations ; Maintenance4.
Project cost5. Financing6. Revenue generation7. Technology adoption8. Insurable Force MajeureThe risk mitigation measures strategized by them are as follows:1.
State-of- art technology was adopted for the construction work2. Absorption of cost escalations by MSRDC. 3. Tight clauses scheduled for subcontractors4.
Preapproval of designs for different road segments5. Contractual and legal shield. Hence the work of private consultants is notable and applaud able as they were precise and effective which resulted on the successful end result for the project and mitigated the risks to such a far extent that pre analyzed the shortcomings both technically and financially and acted rightfully to get out of it at the right period of time and help MSRDC by completing the project with futuristic views and aesthetics. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS:The environmental constraints of the expressway project were very critical which made many modifications on the project because of the distinctive power and legitimacy of the concerned stakeholders. 1.
The Ministry of environment and forest did not permit to the alignment on the Ghats area. They reasoned that it would affect the flora species which were rare on their race and created a threat and endangerment to the species. 2. 800 species of flora produced herbs of medicinal importance and were found on those regions exclusively.
3. The rare species of mouse deer, butterfly and giant Malabar squirrel were found exclusively on the Ghats region which leads to the protest against the project. 4. However MoEF permitted for widening the alignment of the Ghats portion of NH4 across the Lonavla – khandala bypass. 5.
Thus the clearance was obtained after promising to the widening of the road instead of the original alignment of Adoshi to Kusgaon. The environmental factors lead to the various hindrances onto the project be it the MoEF ‘s interference for their alignment of the area or the violating factors endangering the rare species as mentioned above. But the MSRDC and other consultants came up with good solutions without conflicting the interests of the stakeholder s and also preventing the rare species from endangerment by changing and also widening the alignment of the expressway on some regions. Thus the environment constraints which had a conflicting interest over the project was clearly eradicated during the pre design stages thereby preventing them from major financial and also structural design losses as the whole alignment was changed because of them and also because of the farmers who did not sell their land on the influence of certain communities. The proper stakeholder management and deeper feasibility of the project lead to proper management altogether as the team of the project properly did so leading to successful management of the environmental constraints. The topographical as well environmental feasibility were analyzed by private consultants which took years to technically complete the process which reveals the importance and complexities of the project because of these two factors which simultaneously increased the budget to a certain extent.
But ultimately RITES (consultant) planned the viability of the project and the end results were also according to the estimation which made the first of its kind project feasible and was delivered as per the estimation in spite the environmental constraints which were discussed above. TOPOGRAPHICAL CONSTRAINTS:The topographical constraints did contribute to the acute changes on the design of the project as the area had huge complications because of the hilly terrain and sloping surface that lead a pre cautious study or technical feasibility. The technical feasibility of the Mumbai – Pune expressway during the pre design stages can be broadly classified under several studies so as to obtain all physical features of the region where the project was planned and can be broadly classified under the following heads,• Geological studies• Geomorphologic studies• Geo technical studiesWith the stiffening study of all these physical features were the design aligned and many further structural work were employed so as to minimize the risks and difficulties occurred by them to be mitigated on the long run. FAILURES INFERRED:The geo technical studies were carried on the feasibility stages which inference after various tests the following failures because of the landscape of the expressway. Right on the feasibility stage was the studies made which made it possible to successfully encounter the flaws studies especially that of the topographical flaws.
The project was intended to be affected geologically by many factors on which the major criteria were said to be that of two important failures that incurred during the feasibility studies of topographical constraints mentioned as follows:• Failure in Tunnels• Slope failuresFAILURE IN TUNNELS:The failure in tunnels was predicted because of the basic factor of basaltic rocks present o the either sides. It posed a threat during the entry of the tunnels as the tunnels were planned to be constructed on international standards. Weathering due to lithological variations and high permeability resulted in joints of massive trap and vesicular trap. The vesicular traps and the open joints acts as the conduit for potential aquifer and allows huge quantity of water flow. The red/ green beds present showed variations in the bearing capacity with respect to water table and solidification.
Therefore adequate sort systems were planned to be provided such as anchoring and shotcreting in order to overcome the defects detected. The measures were tested and analyzed several times and only implemented which formed a crucial part on the pre design stage of the project. SLOPE FAILURES (ROCK FALL AND DEBRIS FLOW):The area consisted only of basaltic rocks that consisted hugely of two varieties namely compact and amygdoidal. But in between the two layers of rock was found a weak material that would lead to erosion because of surficial action or internal piping.
The area was prone to such a type of erosion and needed a remedy as it would lead to seepage and ultimately failure of rocks that would eventually loosen the rocks to come down and fall on the expressway. Wedge failures and Toppling were also studied that were common on the area due to interaction of nonparallel discontinuity of surfaces. The phenomenon of weathering and erosion favors the interaction of joints that would result in the falling of rocks. International Journal of Geoengineering Case Histories ©, Vol. 2, Issue 1, p. 25 http://casehistories.
geoengineer. LEARNINGS:The project of Mumbai Pune expressway provided an overall overview of a typical COMPLEX and first of its kind type of project which was very rare competitive for a country like India. The exemplary pre design management of the project lead to more effective learning and provided impetus to know some of the new strategies employed by the team who had national and international team working hard for the feasibility and design of the project whose cautious care lead to the successful completion of the project as far as I have learnt. The key takeaways and important lessons learnt from the project are jotted down below that are as follows:1. The deep analysis and study of the feasibility of the project with respect to economical parameters, technical study as well as design of the project which took years to complete yet came up with a very accurate estimate that lead to the first success enjoyed by the team as a whole. 2.
The stake holder management of the project proved to be an exemplary work that could be studied for future projects akin to such kind and the management lead to successful delivery of the project without any delay because of the stakeholders that was rare for any government project with such conflicting stakeholders. 3. The risk mitigation measures studied and taken helped the project set an existing example by functioning without any physical damages which were predicted with many and was mitigated on such a way to eradicate such calamities that proved to be a great lesson learnt for construction on a complex and hilly terrains. 4. The risks under BOT projects was learnt which had huge impact on the progression of the project and al the end users which has to be managed not only during the project but throughout its usage on the long run. 5.
The environmental constraints were also dealt so wisely that made the alignment change and many structural changes that were brought on the pre design stages helped to learn the scope of feasibility of a project which otherwise would have affected the project badly to its disadvantage. 6. Overall the scope pre design management was learnt whose scope could lead to the fate of the project and proved any project with perfect pre design management would end up successfully serving the objective and need of the projects especially the complex ones like the Mumbai – Pune expressway. COMPARISON OF MUMBAI PUNE EXPRESWAY WITH DMRC PHASE III:The scope of Mumbai Pune expressway and the DMRC phase iii were to serve the transportation facility to the people which had an immediate demand of such facilities. As the pre design phase of any project of such scale, budget and huge stakes ought to be planned to perfection so as to successfully deliver the project and the comparison would critically enable us to witness the differences, similarities and shortcomings that can be discussed and thereby achieve the sole purpose of taking the project.
As the project had an entirely different approach and workings on each end yet some of the factors are compared and analyzed about its various awes and flaws. 1. Both the projects were under government and had a huge stakes on the project and faced very similar challenges on the pre design stages. 2. Site selection and land acquisition was the most critical part on the pre design stage faced by either of the projects. DMRC suffered a great deal of time on site selection while the expressway faced great difficulty on acquiring the land and topographical issues.
3. The stakeholder management had to be critically reviewed giving it the importance on such high scale projects. The major hurdle phased by DMRC was political issues while that of the latter was land acquisition. The farmers failed to give them land and the stakeholders kept increasing as the project progressed. 4.
The alignment of the project was changed on the Mumbai Pune expressway because of the land issues and managed its stakeholders accordingly as a result none of the stakeholder groups severely protested against the project. 5. The toll issue was also raised by several issues which also demanded for the privatization of the project as it was common on all BOT projects. The team managed them very well leading to on time delivery of the projects with quality and sustainability on mind. 6.
The topographical issues were common on both projects but the expressway suffered more on the physical terrains that made them come up with new ideas and techniques so as to fulfill the sustainability factors of the project. 7. Risk management phase was mitigated well by both of the projects as they hired private consultants to do the same and almost achieved them to perfection. Both technically and economically managed the risks by proper feasibility studies that were intense and took years to complete showing the work done and caution needed. 8.
Both of the project needed a great deal of management strategies after the construction phase which is the present stage wherein maintenance, toll collection etc should be properly taken care of as they were the BOT projects.