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    7/8th grade earth and space science

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    Question Answer
    Big Bang Theory the theory that the universe was formed about 13.7 billion years ago, from a large explosion or expansion, and is continuing to expand
    Galaxy a large group of stars in the universe
    Spiral Galaxy galaxy that is pinwheel shaped with a thin disk with long arms; gas and dust rotate around the central hub of the galaxy
    Elliptical Galaxy huge galaxy that is round or oval in shape
    Irregular Galaxy huge galaxy with no regular shape
    Star huge, hot body made of different gases; radiates energy (light)
    Nebula an immense cloud of gas (mainly hydrogen) and dust in space; where stars form
    light year (ly) distance light can travel in a vacuum in one year; equal to approximately 5.

    87 X 10 to the power of 12 miles; the unit of measure used by astronomers to determine distances in space

    Planets nearly round objects that revolve around a star; in our solar system
    Sun medium sized star; located near edge of galaxy; many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star; provides energy that creates convection currents in atmosphere and oceans
    Comet small object made of ice with some gas, dust, and rock; a "tail" can appear as the comet revolves around the sun and is heated
    Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram organizes the family of stars into a diagram; across bottom is star's temperature and side is star's absolute magnitude; a star's temperature and color depend on how big the star is
    Electromagnetic Spectrum increasing range in frequency of electromagnetic waves; light and radio waves are used to gain information about distances and properties of objects in the universe; ex. light years used to measure distances and sizes in the universe
    Phase of moon after the new moon waxing crescent
    Phase of moon after waxing crescent 1st quarter
    Phase of moon after 1st quarter waxing gibbous
    Phase of moon after waxing gibbous full moon
    Phase of moon after full moon waning gibbous
    Phase of moon after waning gibbous 3rd quarter
    Phase of moon after 3rd quarter waning cresent
    Phase of moon after waning crescent new moon
    waxing means growing
    waning means shrinking
    the force of attraction between all masses in the universe; especially the attraction of the earth's mass for bodies near its surface Gravitational Attraction
    Lunar eclipse When the earth is between the sun and the moon
    Solar eclipse When the moon is between the earth and the sun
    The moon's gravitational pull on earth causes high and low tides

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